Wednesday, July 19, 2006

Takeshima/Dokdo--Watanabe document 2

It is said that Matsushima and Takeshima, whose Korean name is Ulleungdo, seem to be a single island with two names. However, when former governor of Tottori was asked, he recognized that they are two islands. Also, Toda Takayoshi, Katou and Kanamori Ken described that there is an island at about 40 ri on the sea to the North from Nishijima [belonging to Matsushima. Locals call it 次島.] of Matsushima in Oki province.

[Comment by Aki: (1) '次島' can be read in many ways (e.g. Jito, Tugishima, or Tugushima). Anyway, '次島' means 'next island' or 'second island'. 'Nishijima' means 'West island'. (2) 'Matsushima in Oki province' is Liancourt Rocks. Nishijima which is called 次島 by locals is West Islet of Liancourt Rocks.]

Also, it is about 40 ri by ship from Yonago in Houki province (Tottori prefecture) to Takeshima. To go to Takeshima, go to Izumo (Shimane prefecture) from Yonago, then, you will arrive at Takeshima via Matsushima of Oki. However, it is also said that it is about 20 ri by ship from Fukushima (or Fukuura) of Oki to Matsushima, and that it is about 40 ri from Matsushima to Takeshima. Also, it is about 40 ri by ship from Takeshima to Chosun. This is based on the comment by an old man who went over the sea in 9th year of Kyoho (1724). When he was asked, he replied that it is about 35-36 ri from 伯州會見郡濱野目三柳村 (Aki: this is an address of a village in Tottori prefecture) to the Dogo Island of Oki, and that, judging from the view, the distance (between Takeshima and Chosun) would be about 40 ri since the view of Chosun mountain from Takeshima looked more distant (than the distance between 伯州會見郡濱野目三柳村 and the Dogo Island of Oki). Considering these, it looks obvious that there are two islands.

[Comment by Aki: This passage describes the routes to Takeshima (Ulleungdo). To examine whether there are two islands near Chosun, author describes two concrete examples of the routes to the island(s) near Chosun. First example says that the distance between Yonago (a town in Tottori prefecture) to Takeshima via Liancourt Rocks is 40 ri. Second example says that the distance between an island in Oki Islands and Liancourt Rocks is 20 ri, and the distance between the Liancourt Rocks and Takeshima is 40 ri. The first example shows that it is 40 ri from Yonago town to Takeshima. The second example indicates that it is 60 ri from an island in Oki Islands to Takeshima. Since the distances in the two routes were so different that the author concluded that there seem to be two islands near Chosun. Note that in both examples, the routes to Takeshima are via Liancourt Rocks (Matsushima of Oki). The author has neither confusion nor doubt about the location of the Liancourt Rocks. What is discussed in this passage is whether there are two distinct islands, both of which are called Takeshima by Japanese.]

If considered by referring Western books and if the theory in インパリヤール (Inpariyaaru) of Britain are taken, Dagelet (pronounced as Dazera) island, or Matsushima, is an island in Sea of Japan situated between Japan islands and Korean peninsula. Its northwest point is 137 degrees 25 minutes of north latitude (Aki: '137 degrees' reads '37 degrees'), 130 degrees 56 minutes of east longitude (calculated from Greenwich). It was named by ラペルーズ (Raperuuzu) in 1787. It is 9 ri around. Its rocks around sea make cliffs, and woods cover the island to its highest point. Also, プロナヲンシンク ガセフテル ゼオールルド (Pronaonsink Gasefuteru Zeoorurudo) written by クワピンコツト (Kuwapinkotto) says that Dagelet is a small island in Sea of Japan situated at the almost midpoint between Japan and Chosun. It is 8 ri around and its north point is 37 degrees 25 minutes of north latitude, 135 degrees 56 minutes of east longitude. When these are compared with maps, location of the island labeled as Dagelet, or Matsushima, in British Navy survey map seems to be similar to those described in the two books. The Royal Atlas of Britain, large map by ブルーエ (Buruue) in France, Japan-Chosun by James Wyld who is a geographer to the Queen of Britain, Asian Map by ヲーベルス (Wooberusu) in German, atlas by ゴツタノスチールス (Gotutanostiirusu) in 1875, the map by Geography Department of Weimal, all put Dagelet island at the same position. Survey map by Britain puts an island labeled as Argonaut, or Takeshima, at 129 degrees 57-58 minutes of east longitude, 37 degrees 50 minutes north latitude, although it is drawn by dashed line. The map by Russian Geography Department also puts this at the same position. Also, the book by Kanamori Ken describes that Takeshima is about 15 ri around, and Toda Takayoshi's map, a suvey map by private ship, indicates that it is 23 ri (curves of coastline are counted). Therefore, the size difference (between Takeshima (Argonaut) and) Matsushima, or Dagelet, is not so small. Also, an island which is 1.5 ri around is drawn at the southernmost position in the map. This would be 于人島. When distances were measured using original maps, distances between Oki islands and Matsushima, Takeshima and Chosun are almost consistent. Thus, it is almost obvious that there are two islands, Matsushima and Takeshima. However, books in our country describes only about Takeshima and they do not describe about Matsushima. It is supposed that people used to go to only Takeshima because of the difference in size and richness, and conflicts with Chosun were concerning only Takeshima. If maps are analyzed to examine how foreign countries recognize these islands, British maps paint them and Tsushima islands in the same color as Chosun. French one is the same. German ゴタ (?). The map by スチーレルス (Sutiirerusu) paints them and Tsushima islands in the same color as Japan. Only the map by the Geography Department of Weimal paints Tsushima in the Japanese color, and Matsushima and Takeshima in Korean color. Although Britain and France paint them together with Tsushima in Chosun color, Tsushima is definitely Japanese territory. So the color of Matsushima and Takeshima would be changed. The map by スチーレルス (Sutiirerusu) would be the result of such change. In addition, the names of the islands, Matsushima and Takeshima, are from Japanese language. This suggests that they saw these islands as the ones belonging to Japan. If the relationship between our country and Chosun is considered, late Shogunate did not like conflicts. They gave Takeshima to Chosun because the island is the same as Ulleungdo in their map; distance to the island was also considered. However, there are two islands, Matsushima and Takeshima. Since Matsushima is closer to our country than Takeshima, Chosun cannot resist against that it belongs to Japan. If its importance is discussed, this island situates at almost midpoint between Japan and Chosun, and it is in the sea route from San-in (山陰) in our country to 朝鮮咸鏡道永興府,'Rasareo' port. It is sure that the day to sail from Nagasaki to Vladivostok would come in near future, and its importance is higher by several times than that of Takeshima. Therefore Britain and Russia pay attention. Other countries recognize this way. However, our country does not know whether the two islands, Matsushima and Takeshima, are one island or not. Thus, it is also unknown wheter it belongs to Chosun or not. If foreign countries asked us, we do not know how we should reply to them. If it is made into ours, there would be no chance that we do not have obligation to it. If it is made into Chosun's, we cannot stop foreign countries to control the island. This is the reason to reconsiderAki at Korean language notes

There is a diffent letter that has same Subject.



記錄局長 渡邊洪基 述

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