25. Aki - May 17, 2006 Aki at occidentalism
The following is an excerpt of this page written in Japanese.
The two islands described in some of the maps in 19th century are both Ulleungdo. This duplication of Ulleungdo was caused by two independent findings of Ulleungdo by Westerners. Ulleungdo was initially found by a French, Lepaute Dagelet, and it was named “Dagelet” in 1787. English explorer, James Colnett, also found Ulleungdo and named it “Argonaut” in 1789. Since Dagelet and Colnett assigned different latitudes and longitudes to the “Dagelet” and “Argonaut”, maps made by Westerners tended to describe two islands in this area.
The followings are examples of the maps which describe the two Ulleungdos as “Dagelet” and “Argonaut”.
Map I : Arrow Smith’s map published in 1811.
(Colnett’s ship, Argonaut, lost her rudder just after he found Ulleungdo. The description in the map “Argonaut lost her Rudder” indicates this incident.)
Map II : Thomson’s map published in 1815.
German Doctor Phillip von Siebold (1796-1866) who had lived in Japan for 5 years had the knowldge that there are two islands which Japanese call “Takeshima (Ulleungdo)” and “Matsushima (Liancourt Rocks)” between Korea and Oki islands. Thus he assigned these Japanese names to the two islands, “Argonaut” and “Dagelet”, on his map. His map caused much confusion to both Japanese and Westerners since he assigned the Japanese names for Ulleungdo and the Liancourt Rocks to the duplicated Ulleungdos.
Map III : Siebold’s map published in 1840.
Liancourt Rocks were found by a French ship, Liancourt, in mid-19th century. The first Western map describing the Liancourt Rocks was published in 1849. Liancourt Rocks were also called Hornet Rocks, since English ship “Hornet” found these rocks in 1855. Thus, maps published in late-19th century tended to describe three islands, “Argonaut”, “Dagelet” and “Liancourt (= Hornet)”, between Korea and Oki islands (Okinoshima).
Map IV : Wilhelm Heine’s map published in 1855.
Map V : A map compiled by U.S. commodore Matthew Perry (published in 1856).
Note that Argonaut is marked “nicht Vorhanden (not exist)” in this map. It had been known by this time that the longitude and latitude assigned to Ulleungdo (Argonaut) by Colnet was inaccurate and that there was no island at this map position.
Map VI : James Wyld’s map published in 1868.
These Western maps were imported into Japan. So Japanese maps affected by Western maps also describe three islands between Korea and Oki islands.
Map VII : Katsu Kaisyu’s map (大日本沿海略図 by 勝海舟) published in 1867.
Map VIII : Hashimoto Gyokuran’s map (大日本四神全図 by 橋本玉蘭) published in 1870.
Note that in these maps the duplicated Ulleungdo (Argonaut and Dagelet) are labeled as Takeshima (竹嶋, 竹シマ) and Matsushima (松島, 松シマ), respectively, according to Siebold’s map (Map III).
Description on the island called “Argonaut” gradually disappeared from maps because there is no island at the map position of “Argonaut”.
MAP IX : Rittau’s map published in 1880.
In this map, Ulleungdo is labeled as Matsusima according to the Siebold’s map (Map III).
In August 1871 the domains were declaired abolished and replaced by prefectures,Haihanchiken,"dissolutionof the domains and establishedment of prefecture.
I show the list here again.
–——–(Argonaut I.) -(Dagelet I.)- (Liancourt R.)
1849 - - (None)——-(None)——-Matsushima
1867 —-Takeshima -Matsushima-Ryamkoutorokku
1875 —-Takeshima –Matsushima -(None)—
1898 —-Matsushima –Takeshima -(None)—-
1909 - –(None)—––(Matshishima) –Takeshima
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