Monday, December 04, 2006

Roosevelt Corollary and Open door policy and war plan orange

Roosevelt Corollary
Big Stick Diplomacy or Big Stick Policy was the slogan describing U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt's corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. The United States, he claimed, had the right not only to oppose European intervention in the Western Hemisphere, but also to intervene itself in the domestic affairs of its neighbors if they proved unable to maintain order and national sovereignty on their ownwiki

The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine was a substantial alteration (called an "amendment") of the Monroe Doctrine by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt in 1904. In its altered state, the Monroe Doctrine would now consider Latin America as an agency for expanding U.S. commercial interests in the region, along with its original stated purpose of keeping European hegemony from the hemisphere.

Shift to the "Good Neighbor" policy

Presidents cited the corollary to justify U.S. intervention in (and occupation of) Cuba (1906-1910), Nicaragua (1909-1911, 1912-1925 and 1926-1933), Haiti (1915-1934), and the Dominican Republic (1916-1924).

In 1930, the Clark Memorandum stated that the U.S. did not have the right to intervene unless there was a threat by European powers, reversing the Roosevelt Corollary. In 1934, Franklin D. Roosevelt further renounced interventionism and established his "Good Neighbor policy" of lessened military

open door policy
China was in political and economic disarray as the end of the 19th century approached. The giant was not recognized as a sovereign nation by the major powers, who were busy elbowing one another for trading privileges and plotting how the country could be partitioned. The imperial nations sought spheres of influence and claimed extraterritorial rights in China.
The United States took Far Eastern matters more seriously after the Spanish-American War, when they came into possession of the Philippines. In the fall of 1898, President McKinley stated his desire for the creation of an "open door" that would allow all trading nations access to the Chinese market. The following year, Secretary of State John Hay sought a formal endorsement of the concept by circulating diplomatic notes among the major powers, enabling the secretary to be credited with authoring the Open Door policy.

Hay’s proposal called for the establishment of equal trading rights to all nations in all parts of China and for recognition of Chinese territorial integrity (meaning that the country should not be carved up). The impact of such a policy would be to put all of the imperial nations on an equal footing and minimize the power of those nations with existing spheres of influence.

No nation formally agreed to Hay’s policy; each used the other nations' reluctance to endorse the Open Door as an excuse for their own inaction. An undeterred Hay simply announced that agreement had been reached. Only Russia and Japan voiced displeasure.

On the surface, it appeared that the United States had advanced a reform viewpoint, but the truth was otherwise. The U.S. had no sphere of influence in China, but had long maintained an active trade there. If other nations were to partition China, the United States would likely be excluded from future commercial activities. In short, Hay was simply trying to protect the prospects of American businessmen and investors.

The increasing disregard of the Open Door Policy was a main reason for the convocation of the Washington Conference (1921-1922) in Washington, D.C. As a result of the conference, the Nine-Power Treaty, again affirming the integrity and independence of China via the Open Door principle, was signed by the United States, Great Britain, Japan, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, China, and Belgium. However, the Nine-Power Treaty lacked any enforcement regulations.

With the Japanese seizure (1931) of Manchuria and the creation of Manchukuo, however, the Open Door principle suffered its greatest reverse.


After World War II, China's position as a sovereign state was recognized, and all special concessions and unequal treaties were abolished, With the rise to power of the Communist Party of China, the Open Door Policy was rejected until the late-1970's when Deng Xiaoping committed China to adopting policies which promote foreign trade and economic investment. Since the late-1970's, the government of the People's Republic of China has maintained a policy of encouraging foreign

The hypothetical enemy

Roosevelt mixed conciliation with firmness in dealing with Japan's evident new power. On the one hand, he sanctioned agreement with japan that mutually recoginized U.S. interests in the Philippines and Japanese in terests in North Asia. At home, when the San Francisco School Boad angered Japan with its order to establish a separate school for "Oriental" children, Roosevelt summoned school officials to the White House to resolve the issue. On the other hand , he also dispatched the U.S. fleet on a world tour to demonstrate American power and resoluve to the Japanese. It was at this time that both the U.S. and Japanese navies began to regard each other as primiary hypothetical enemies. page 95 Japan rising,Kenneth B. Pyle

War Plan Orange

War Plan Orange is an American strategy against Japan in case of war with Japan. War Plan Orange was started, by Theodore Roosevelt, in 1890 because Japanese warships started snooping around Hawaii after many Japanese laborers had emigrated to Hawaii, a US protectorate. War Plan Orange has changed as the threat from Japan changed. After Hawaii was annex in 1898, the fear of Japan laying a claim on Japan faded. However, there were suspicions that the Japanese wanted the Philippine Islands to resettle their growing population. There was evidence of a secret society that aided in a native insurrection against the US rule in the Philippines; however, only Japan’s covetousness of Blue possessions was mentioned in the Orange plan.

After thousands of Japanese immigrated to California between 1891 and 1906, white racists victimized the Orientals and Politicians passed laws that violated treaties between Japan and the United States. These actions caused the Japanese to become outraged. Fear that war with Japan was imminent, the Naval War College staff pondered on a Blue-Orange war scenario.

War Plan Orange had assigned color codes to different countries; Japan was named, Orange and US was named, Blue. War Plan Orange was never enacted by Congress or signed by the President until after 1941. This war policy was determined by varied and informal manner.
FDR Changes Foreign Policy

Although President Roosevelt close the case on the Japanese sinking of the USS Panay on December 25, 1937 due to Japan’s apology, promise to pay damages, and guaranteeing the safety of the rights and interests of the American nationals in China. Japanese continued to harass and abuse American citizens in China. This caused President Roosevelt to take a firmer stance against Japan. President Roosevelt supported British proposal to establish a naval blockade around Japan; however, the British changed their decision and only issued a verbal disagreement toward Japan’s actions in China. President Roosevelt did not go through with the naval blockade due to the lack of support by British government. President Roosevelt did move up the cruise for the American Fleet for a time earlier than mid-March.

Due to the strong isolationistic tendencies of the American public and policies, President Roosevelt was unable to take a firmer stand against Japanese aggression in China. The United States wanted to avoided conflicted at all costs. Therefore, the President’s hands were tied and he could not take further action against Japan.
War Plan Orange

Now I see why the tension between Japan and USA arose before WWⅡ.
1) Japan tried to practice her own version of "Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine over Manshyukuo
2)But the time was when the US wanted to extend the sphere of influence in China.
3)The interest of both countries conflicted.

Note that both countries had a war plan againt each other as early as 1904.
War Plan Orange was the US Navy war plan for dealing with a possible Japanese attack in the interwar years. The plan anticipated a withholding of supplies from the Philippine Islands and other U.S. outposts in the Western Pacific (they were expected to hold out on their own), while the Pacific Fleet marshaled its strength at bases in California, and guarded against attacks on the Panama Canal. After mobilization (the ships maintained only half their crews in peacetime), the fleet would sail to the Western Pacific to relieve American forces in Guam and the Philippine Islands. Afterwards, the fleet would sail due north for a decisive battle against the Imperial Japanese Navy, and then blockade the Japanese home islands.

The Imperial Japanese Navy developed a counter-plan to allow the US Fleet to sail across the Pacific while using submarines to weaken it. The Japanese fleet would then attempt to force a battle against the US fleet on territory that was favorable to it after the US fleet had been weakened.

War Plan Orange did not envision that aircraft could sink battleships, or that Japan would put the US battleship fleet out of action in an attack on Pearl Harbor. Many have questioned the move by Franklin Delano Roosevelt to send the fleet from California to Hawaii, since when war began it would have to be brought back to California to pick up the other half of the crews (consisting of mobilized reserves and new recruits).

American plans changed after Pearl Harbor demonstrated the dominance of aircraft in naval warfare, and the Japanese had gained air superiority over the Philippines early in the war. Even after severe Japanese defeats like Midway, the US fleet favored a methodical "island-hopping" advance that never took it far beyond land-based air

For Japanese soldier's conciousness at the time, it seems it was the war againt racial descrimination and imperial invasion.
A Note to Roosevelt

日本海軍、市丸海軍少将、書ヲ「フランクリン ルーズベルト」君ニ致ス。
Rear Admiral R. Ichimaru of the Japanese Navy sends this note to Roosevelt.

I have one word to give you upon the termination of this battle.

Approximately a century has elapsed since Nippon, after Commodore Perry's entry to Shimoda, became widely affiliated with the countries of the world. During this period of intercourse Nippon has met with many national crises as well as the undesired Sino-Japanese War, Russo-Japanese War, the World War, the Manchurian Incident, and the China Incident. Nippon is now, unfortunately, in a state of open conflict with your country.

Judging Nippon from just this side of the screen you may slander our nation as a yellow peril, or a blood thirsty nation or maybe a protoplasm of military clique.

Though you may use the surprise attack on Pearl Harbour as your primary material for propaganda, I believe you, of all persons, know best that you left Nippon no other method in order to save herself from self-destruction.

His Imperial Highness, as clearly shown in the "Rescript of the Founder of the Empire" "Yosei" (Justice), "Choki" (Sagacity) and "Sekkei" (Benevolence), contained in the above three fold doctrine, rules in the realization of "Hakko-ichiu" (the universe under His Sacred Rule) in His Gracious mind. The realization of which means the habitation of their respective fatherlands under their own customs and traditions, thus insuring the everlasting peace of the world.

之(これ)、曾(かつ)テハ「四方の海 皆はらからと思ふ世に など波風の立ちさわぐらむ」ナル明治天皇ノ御製(ぎょせい)(日露戦争中御製)ハ、貴下ノ叔父「テオドル・ルーズベルト」閣下ノ感嘆ヲ惹(ひ)キタル所ニシテ、貴下モ亦、熟知ノ事実ナルベシ。
Emperor Meiji's "The four seas of the world that are united in brotherhood will know no high waves nor wind" (composed during the Russo-Japanese War) won the appraisal of your uncle, Theodore Roosevelt as you yourself know.

We, the Nippon-jin, though may follow all lines of trade, it is through our each walk of life that we support the Imperial doctrine.

We, the soldiers of the Imperial Fighting Force take up arms to further the above stated "doctrine".

Though we, at the time, are externally taken by your air raids and shelling backed by your material superiority, spiritually we are burning with delight and enjoying the peace of mind.

This peacefulness of mind, the common universal stigma of the Nippon-jin, burning with fervour in the upholding of the Imperial Doctrine may be impossible for you and Churchill to understand.

I hereupon pitying your spiritual feebleness pen a word or two.

Judging from your actions, white races especially you Anglo-Saxons at the sacrifice of the coloured races are monopolizing the fruits of the world.

In order to attain this end, countless machinations were used to cajole the yellow races, and to finally deprive them of any strength.

Nippon in retaliation to your imperialism tried to free the oriental nations from your punitive bonds, only to be faced by your dogged opposition. You now consider your once friendly Nippon a harmful existence to your luscious plan, a bunch of barbarians that must be exterminated.

The completion of this Greater East Asia War will bring about the birth of the East Asia Co-Prosperity Area, this in turn will in the near future result in the everlasting peace of the world, if, of course, is not hampered upon by your unending imperialism.

Why is it that you, an already flourishing nation, nip in bud the movement for the freedom of the suppressed nations of the East.

It is no other than to return to the East that which belongs to the East.

It is beyond our contemplation when we try to understand your stinted narrowness.

The existence of the East Asia Co-Prosperity sphere does not in anyway encroach upon your safety as a nation, on the contrary, will sit as a pillar of world peace ensuring the happiness of the world. His Imperial Majesty's true aim is no other than the attainment of this everlasting peace.

Studying the condition of the never ending racial struggle resulting from mutual misunderstanding of the European countries, it is not difficult to feel the need of the everlasting universal peace.

Present Hitler's crusade of "His Fatherland" is brought about by no other than the stupidity of holding only Germany, the loser of the World War, solely responsible for the 1914-1918 calamity and the deprivation of Germany's re-establishment.

It is beyond my imagination of how you can slander Hitler's program and at the same time cooperate with Stalin's "Soviet Russia" which has as its principle aim the "socialization" of the World at large.

If only the brute force decides the ruler of the world, fighting will everlastingly be repeated, and never will the world know peace nor happiness.

Upon the attainment of your barbaric world monopoly never forget to retain in your mind the failure of your predecessor President Wilson at his heights.



This author goes back the Black Ship to find the cause of Peal Harbourl.

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