So Chae-p'il (Philip Jaisohn) processed in 1884 from asylum in Japan to America and studied medicine. On his return to Korea in 1896, he resumed leadership of the nation's modern reform program. Appointed a consultant to the Privy Council,・・・・・i
The Independence Club, which So helped to found, was formally activated in July 1896, with Minister of War An Kyong-su as president and Foreign Minister Yi Wan-yong as chairman
So Chae-p'il did his best to awaken the public to the needs of modernization. He asserted that the following steps were vital to national development: mass education, road construction, commerce promoting national wealth, women's education, the promotion of Han-gul for mass education, currency in domestic transactions, wide circulation of both domestic and foreign newspapers, exploitation of mining resources and the establishment of a congress・・・・
The people were united in condemning the King's flight to a foreign legation and the continuous granting of economic concessions to foreigners and their outrage coalesced in the Independence Club's campaign. As a result, Kojong moved out of the Russian legation to Kyong-un-gung (today's Toksugung) palace in February 1897link
The first chairpserson of excutive comitte was Lee Wan yon.p175
In 1898, Feb.9th, Independent club hold the street oratory convention called all people's meeting.It demanded to the government that transfering the right to foreign
nations,the establishment of Korea-Russian Bank be stopped, the soverignty infringed
by Russian advisors to fainance and army be recovered. Henceforth, civilians members of Independent club promoted the activity mainly against the government, but the members of government officials such as Lee Wan yon were against such activities.The gevernment expelled the sustansive leader So(徐載粥) to the United States,and helped conservatives to form Imperial society to oppose the club. Some members were imprisoned, and others were forced to flight exile. At the end of the year,the independent club perished completely.
The movement of anti-Japan rightous troop is the anti-Japanese armed force originating from the earier movement of rightoust troop, which revolted militarily in 1890's, advocating Confucious, anti-Japan, anti-Russia.p184
There are no cases in which the large scale of rightous troop with thousands soldiers fought with Japanese army except one case. Only once ten thousands of rightous solodier asseembled in 1907, December.The Rightous soldiers from all of the county planed to advance into Soeul, but failed because Japan knew this plan and the Army could not withstand the Japanese counter-offensive.Henceforce, the Righteous Army split into small bands of guerilla.p186
Between 1905 and 1910, uprisings and rebellions erupted frequently throughout Korea. Japan crushed them with efficient savagery. The Koreans had few weapons, and Japan was a powerful and merciless nation. According to Japanese statistics, 14,566 Korean "rebels" were killed between July 1907 and December 1908. By 1910, when Japan formally annexed Korea, little open resistance remained in the land; and no Western nation spoke out against Japan's seizure of the peninsula.
Anthony Carty, University of Derby, offered archival materials from British government files of letters and reports from Korea during the period just before, during, and after the annexation. British embassy officials seemed to have reached the conclusion that the Japanese take-over was a fait accompli, and that there was little or nothing in the form of popular or other noticeable protest against it at the time.link
The Iljinhoe (meaning Progress Party) was a political organization formed in the Korean Empire on August 8, 1904. It claimed that Korea could not develop capitalism on its own, and demanded a merger with the Japanese Empire. It cooperated with the Imperial Japanese army during the Russo-Japanese War.
Revised Romanization: Iljinhoe
一進会/dreamtale (in Japanese)宋秉畯/dreamtale一進会/dreamtale in Japanese
“Japan attempted to rally public support for a protectorate treaty through a front organization that it created and financed, the Ilchinhoe (”Advancement Society”). The purpose of this charade was to create the false impression that a protectorate treaty was not a Japanese demand but rather a response to the wishes of the Korean people.”井の中の蛙
However, this claim is groudless.In fact, Ilchinhoe contibuted 250000 yen to the Japanese army during Russo-Japan War.
To be sure, Japanese army gave 100000 yen to this party, but it was because Ilchinhoe called Japanese army for help to supplement the red finance:Ilchinhoe expended 150000 yen to help victims of the riots throughout the country.
Kim Wan sop, a Korean writer
This political party is an association of Tonghak,independent club, all the people's meeting(万民共同会）and other revolutionary parties.It was formed to civilize Korea,in solidarity with Japan, by overthrowing Korean dynasty and the reactionaries.This fact, however , is thoroughly concealed from Korean people now, and Korean govenment misrepresents this party as the pseudo-group of a few pro-Japanese.
Isshinkai is the largest political party ever formed in Korean history, to revolutionalize Korea in the begging of 20 century. And it was formed by every revolutionary forces and it is an association of a hundreds of thousands of revolutionary army. p266 
呉善花 a Korean professor
The number of members was claimed by its party to be a million but the government-general office reported that it was 140000 at the time of annexation. Some speculates that there were 2000000 or more when the activity was at its best, Suppose it was 1400000.Still it was the largest political party and no other political party could be cmpared with it.
Considering the fact that the population at the time was 1300000, we can not ingnore it as a handful of pro-Japanese reactionaries."p190
The gate on the photo says, isshinkai Iljinhoe, WELCOME
“In August 1904, probably as a means to mobilize laborers for the construction of the military railway between Seoul and Ûiju, Song [Pyŏng-jun] organized the Yushinhoe (Restoration Society). To expand its numbers, the group merged a few days later with the Chinbohoe (Progress Society) led by Yi Yong-gun, a former Tonghak leader…In a fawning letter sent to Japanese officials…the new organization, called the Ilchinhoe (Restoration Society) offered its support to the Japanese efforts against the Russians…From the outset the Japanese authorities viewed the Ilchinhoe with considerable ambivalence…The strongest Japanese supporters of the Ilchinhoe were Japanese patriotic societies and chauvinist groups looking for allies in the pursuit of their pan-Asian dreams…” Mentions an alleged 1 million membership for the society.
Schmid, Andre Korea Between Empires, 1895-195 (2002) p88
“Pan-Asianist ideas also found many advocates in Korea. Most notorious was the Ilchinhoe, a political society established in 1904 by Yi Yonggu and Son Pyŏnghûi [sic: isn’t Son a Ch’ŏndogyo leader and co-founder of the anti-Ilchinhoe newspaper Mansebo?] which made unity of the yellow race a central tenet of its collaborationist activity…”
Conroy, Hilary The Japanese Seizure of Korea 1868-1910 (1960) p415
“Exactly how this relationship [between Tonghak rebels and Japanese reactionaries] developed is not clear, but the “Secret History” tells us that the Ilchin Hoe (Japanese Isshin Kai), the society which linked the Japanese reactionaries with their Korean comrades during the 1905-1910 period, was “a changed form of the Tonghak Party.” One of the main changes seems to have occured during the Russo-Japanese War when the Japanese army in Korea began to subsidize the society to encourage its pro-Japanese proclivities.” Cites Nikkan Gappō
“Within Korea an organization called Ilchinhoe, or Unity and Progress Society, enrolled large numbers of Koreans in a new mass organization that backed Japan’s policies; one scholar [Gregory Henderson] wrote that this was Korea’s first modern political organization, uniting leaders and led and mobilizing the masses. That generalization is a bit of a stretch, but so is the subsequent attempt by nationalist historians to pretend that the Ilchinhoe’s members were few, with each one devoted to selling Korea to Japan.”井の中の蛙
A statement by the president of Ilchinhoe
Japan made Korea independent after sino=Japanese war, and saved Korea, which was about to be encroaced by Russia. But far from being greateful for it, Korea donned this country and that, as a result, she was deprived of the right of the diplomacy, but it is our own fault.we had to conclude 丁未 treaty* because we caused Hague incident.we should keep it mind that Hirofumi Ito watched us Korean nationals warmly and lead the Crown Prince in the right direction for the benifit of Korea. Harbin incident having taken place,we do not know what's coming to us.It is we Koreans who caused all of this.・・・・・therefore rather than living as a inferior nationals receiving protections, let's choose to live as first class nationals equal to Japanese,constructing a great empire, by merging with Japan.
A million of members.
李成玉 an ambassador plenipotentiary
During Yi dynasty period, 李成玉 visited the US as an ambassador plenipotentiary , and was shocked to know that Koreans were more despised than American Indians by Americans, and were inferior to the race of Mexico and India.He said,
The present Korea national has no power to make our country independent. It is inevitable that Korea perish. To avoid it, we had to be annexed. And no other counry is more right to annex Korea than Japan.While Western people consider Koreans as a dog or a pig, Japan does not. I do not like the way Japanese scold us, imposing Japanese ethics, but this is because they see us as the same kind.And Japan is the right country to lead us to participate in the world civilization. Besides that way, there is no way we can eonjoy the happiness as human beings, escaping from the situation like a pig.I don't see why the annexiation is the problem. My view on annexisation is the result of consideration based on the way western people see Koreans.
金文輯 a writer
Reflecting upon the thousands years of the Korean hisotry, or just thinking of 500 years of history of Yi dynasty, it is common sense of Korea herself that indenpendence without help is just a dream. What is more, looking at this 50 years of international relations, and the future historical perspectives which are growing for the worse, it is nonsense for Korea to become independent with the weakness as it is. If so, the only way is to become assimilated to Japanese and enjoy the same right and obligation as imperial Japanese.
李完用 Lee Wan-yong. prime minister
Before we pitched the net, a fish jumped into the net," said Midori Komatsu, who was the foreign affairs director at the Office of the Japanese Resident General in Korea, recollecting the eve of the Japanese annexation of Korea in August 1910.
let us find out who chased the fish - annexation - into the net. Choson, or Korea, suggested annexation to Japan first. Lee Ik-jik was a secret envoy of Prime Minister Lee Wan-yong.
Does this make Lee Wan-yong a traitor who stands out in thousands of years of history?
He passed a government examination to become a public servant in 1882. During the "days of enlightenment" of Choson, he learned English at Yukyeong Gongwon, the nation's first language school. He served as a charge d'affaires to the United States for two years from 1888. With Yun Chi-ho and Yu Gil-jun, Lee, one of the very few Koreans who could speak English, first was known as pro-American. In 1894, he declined to take office as a charge d'affaires to Japan, citing mourning for his mother. Unlike Song Byeong-jun, a devoted member of a pro-Japanese group, Lee never learned to speak Japanese. Surprisingly, he was the founder of the Independence Club established in 1896.
In fact, Seo Jae-pil's Dongnip Sinmun (Independence Newspaper) never wrote a single line of criticism against Lee Wan-yong2001.08.30joong ang daily
Treaty of Annexation・
・・・・・・In order to maintain peace and stability in Korea, to promote the prosperity and welfare of Koreans, and at the same time to ensure the safety and repose of foreign residents, it has been made abundantly clear that fundamental changes in the actual regime of government are absolutely essential. The Governments of Japan and Korea, being convinced of the urgent necessity of introducing reforms responsive to the requirements of the situation and of furnishing sufficient guarantee for the future, have, with the approval of His Majesty the Emperor of Japan and His Majesty the Emperor of Korea, concluded, through their plenipotentiaries, a treaty providing for complete annexation of Korea to the Empire of Japan. By virtue of that important act, which shall take effect on its promulgation on August 29, 1910, the Imperial Government of Japan shall undertake the entire government and administration of Korea, and they hereby declare that the matters relating to foreigners and foreign trade in Korea shall be conducted in accordance with the following rules:
In faith thereof:
Resident General Viscount Terauchi Masatake
Prime Minister Yi, Wan-yong
We should also note:
p196 Professor Treat commments,".....every step in the process was 'correct' diplomatically, and the final annexation was consummated by....treaty , not proclamation."As a matter of record, Japan's annexation of Korea had considerably more "legal" documentation than most of the empire-building of the Western Powers.
Mirror for Ameriacans--Another perspective on the Pacific War
Even Mackenzi,who was the most critical of Japanese rule, wrote in the preface of Tragedy of Korea,
No unbiased ovserver can deny that Korean owes the loss of her independence mainly to the corruption and weakness of her old national administration. It is equally true that the Japanese policyon the peninsula has been made more difficult by the intrigues and obstinacy of the old Court party.
Korean King in 1910
And Kingo wrote
To follow is my past posting from another topic of this site. The Korean Emperor admitted the annexation. He had to do so.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Here is a copy of an Imperial mandate by Korean emperor 純宗皇帝 when Korea was to be annexed;
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Emperor says here,
I suceeded a profession of non-virtue and hardship,
Until today, I ordered and tried new government ordinances,
it was not yet completed but weakness of this country increased and it is exhausted, and there is no hope to regain power.
Day and night I worried but there is no policy available and I stood absent-mindedly.
If we lose lots of benefits, we can’t settle them at the end.
Rather we’d better entrust it to others in order to get complete way and innovative result.
Therefore, I thought calmly by myself and decided myself,
I am going to give the sovereignty of Korea to the neighbouring country Japan’s His majesty the Emperor, whom I have been looking up from bottom of my heart, in order to strengthen peace over the far east and to protect public welfare around the area.
So all the people of Korea should think about the situation about this country, do one’s job without anxiety, obey the new cultural policy of Imperial Japan and enjoy happiness.
My decision today doesn’t mean that I forgot the people of Korea,
it is due to the intention to relieve and let live the people of Korea.
So all the people should remember my will.
御璽pacifist at oocientalism
As for the signature
Seol University Professor Lee Tae-Jin
Book title: ” My Lectures to the Students of Tokyo University”
The most undisputably authentic signature by King Sunjong can be found on the letter of attorny commissioning full powers to Lee Wan-yong when the treaty for the annexation of Korea was forced upon her in August 22,1910.two cents at occidentalism
この団体は東学Tonghak, or Eastern Learningと独立協会、万民共同会など朝鮮のあらゆる革命団体が連合したものであり、朝鮮王朝と反動勢力を転覆させ日本との連帯のもとに革命の課題である文明開化をなしとげるために結成された。しかし、このような事実は、韓国社会では徹底的に隠蔽され、韓国政府は一進会について日本が少数親日派を糾合して結成した似非団体のごとく歪曲して教育している。ｐ２６５
１９０９年 １２月４日 一進会（百万の朝鮮人会員）
朝鮮全権大使 李成玉 「李完用侯の心事と日韓和合」
We might as well note what Makenzie had to say about dessidents amoung Koreans.
He focused on the dark side of the early period of the colonization.
He wrote in the preface to "Tragedy of Korea"
No unbiased ovserver can deny that Korean owes the loss of her independence mainly to the corruption and weakness of her old national administration. It is equally true that the Japanese policyon the peninsula has been made more difficult by the intrigues and obstinacy of the old Court party. .....
i, for one, am convinced that we owe it to ourselves and to our ally, Japan, to let it be clearly known that a policy of Imperial expansion based upon breaches of solemn treaty obligations to a weaker nation, and built up by odious cruelty,by needless slauter and y a wholsale theft of the private property rights of a dependent and defenceless peasantry, is repugnant to our instincts and cannot fail to rob the nation that is doing it of much of that respect and goodwill with which we all so recently regarded her.
When Japanese who went there first were largely men who wanted to get rich quickly , and who had no scruples with regard to methods.The mmigrants not only cheated the natives when they had opportunity, but relying upson the absence of legal contro, often illtreated them personally and deprived them of their property by force.The Japanese authorities, of course, disapproved of this and did what they could to prevent it; but fifty of sixty thousand immigrants scattered over a counrty more than twice as big as Indiana,....are not to be controlled by half dozen consuls.
Other examples of Japanese unfair treatment of Koreans is depicted in Korea's Fight for Freedom
Assesment of the treaty.
There are a few scholoars who consider it illegal , but
Professor John Van Dyke, of the University of Hawaii, gave a paper on the current claims and counter-claims regarding the annexation of the Hawaiian Islands. The example was most instructive, and suggested that continuing negotiations between Korean and Japan, as between Hawaii and the United States, should be pursued.
Anthony Carty, University of Derby, offered archival materials from British government files of letters and reports from Korea during the period just before, during, and after the annexation. British embassy officials seemed to have reached the conclusion that the Japanese take-over was a fait accompli, and that there was little or nothing in the form of popular or other noticeable protest against it at the time. Professor Carty’s paper suggested to this observer, at least, that it would be worth the effort to pursue the issue of Korean popular feelings about the annexation, rather than continuing to worry the bone of official government records and archival materials.link
It was after WWⅠ(1914~1918) that the treaty was illegal because it was forced.
Hence the logic does not apply to the treaty in quesion.
And as for 1905 treaty King Kojong was acting along with 5 ministers around him , to make a compromise with Japanese:The fact was confirmed by the newly discomvered document.(the below)
原田環氏が「韓国・北朝鮮の嘘を見極める」 文春新書 ｐ８８ で以下のように述べている。
"Before we pitched the net, a fish jumped into the net," said Midori Komatsu, who was the foreign affairs director at the Office of the Japanese Resident General in Korea, recollecting the eve of the Japanese annexation of Korea in August 1910. His remarks are sinking deep into our minds, and we again confirm that 91 years ago we surrendered our country to the Japanese colonial government due to our hopeless ineptitude. On Aug. 29, 1910, the imperial government of Japan promulgated that it had taken over the entire government and administration of Korea, and Wednesday was the anniversary of the national humiliation. In studying this history, let us find out who chased the fish - annexation - into the net. Choson, or Korea, suggested annexation to Japan first. Lee Ik-jik was a secret envoy of Prime Minister Lee Wan-yong.
Does this make Lee Wan-yong a traitor who stands out in thousands of years of history? The truth is not as simple as an elementary school textbook. "A Critical Biography of Lee Wan-yong," by Yun Deok-han, published in 1999, shows the complicated truth. "Until now, we have simply created an image of a betrayer of our country and joined in drubbing of the person."
First, we cannot say that Lee was a born Japanese sympathizer. He passed a government examination to become a public servant in 1882. During the "days of enlightenment" of Choson, he learned English at Yukyeong Gongwon, the nation's first language school. He served as a charge d'affaires to the United States for two years from 1888. With Yun Chi-ho and Yu Gil-jun, Lee, one of the very few Koreans who could speak English, first was known as pro-American. In 1894, he declined to take office as a charge d'affaires to Japan, citing mourning for his mother. Unlike Song Byeong-jun, a devoted member of a pro-Japanese group, Lee never learned to speak Japanese. Surprisingly, he was the founder of the Independence Club established in 1896.
In fact, Seo Jae-pil's Dongnip Sinmun (Independence Newspaper) never wrote a single line of criticism against Lee Wan-yong. Now, how should we interpret Lee, who has fallen from a foreign affairs expert with a broad scope to a traitor after the Eulsa Protectorate Treaty between Korea and Japan was signed? Maybe, he symbolizes our modern history, which we have ruined due to confusion and lack of ability.
Debates over pro-Japanese groups rise often in the political arena these days. And then they are easily forgotten. That is shameful. "Pro-Japanese group" is not an insult against others; it is a mirror reflecting us. Furthermore, isn't the net of history stretched in front of us? I am puzzled.
The writer is an editor of the JoongAng Ilbo publications.
by Cho Woo-suk