Friday, March 31, 2006

ひさしぶりのgood news. Japan -Vietnam

On the whole, recent inept Japanese diplomacy has played into the hands of those in China and Korea who conceptually and emotionally -- and for domestically political reasons -- remain fixed on Japan's nasty war-time past with regard to their basic (negative and at times racist) assumptions about the Japanese.

And so it came as a blessed breeze of fresh air in the otherwise overheated atmosphere of South Vietnam's largest and most teeming city to learn that, around here at least, the Japanese are very much in favor.

the Japanese are prepared to help. But they are not offering handouts, aid programs and the like once so common from the West because these efforts generally sank like dead water buffaloes in the swamp of Vietnam.


But the Japanese are prepared to offer loans, at incredibly low interest rates -- "sometimes just one percent," explained my friend, the master negotiator who deals with the Chinese, the Koreans, and anyone who is thinking of helping the country escape from poverty.

What does Japan ask for in return? Vietnam's vote at the UN? The opening of a Japanese war memorial downtown? Obeisance to the Chrysanthemum Throne?

"None of this, not at all," says my friend. "We just have to use the yen in ways that help Japanese businesses in this country and the region."3/30/2006 AsiaMedia



米国牛肉問題 Korea の場合。

South Korea began importing U.S. beef in February despite the government's announcement in March it would delay imports of North American beef, sources told The Korea Times.

The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry decided to delay U.S. beef imports by several weeks or months because another case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) _ mad cow disease _ was detected March 13 in the U.S. State of Alabama.Korea times03-31-2006 17:42



A Japanese diplomat posted in Shanghai who committed suicide in May 2004 was pressured to divulge secrets to Chinese intelligence officers, according to suicide notes obtained by The Yomiuri Shimbun on Thursday.

According to the suicide notes, the 46-year-old official was pressed to reveal the backgrounds of Japanese Consulate General officials in Shanghai and the names of their local contacts.

According to the note, in June 2003, Chinese intelligence officers detained a woman working at a karaoke bar with whom the diplomat was having a relationship on suspicion of prostitution. The woman was released without charge and then persuaded to act as a liaison with the diplomat

According to the note, in June 2003, Chinese intelligence officers detained a woman working at a karaoke bar with whom the diplomat was having a relationship on suspicion of prostitution. The woman was released without charge and then persuaded to act as a liaison with the diplomat

Showing the diplomat a list of all the staff at the consulate, the captain pressed him to reveal each staff member's career background. He then threatened the diplomat for information, saying: "You're a telecommunications officer. I know all the reports are sent through you. Give me the names of Chinese people consulate officials have met."

After the meeting, the diplomat realized he would be asked about the consulate's cryptaographic system for sending coded messages. On May 5, the day before the meeting, the diplomat wrote his suicide notes. He killed himself the morning of the following day at a consulate building.

Article 40 of the Vienna Convention requires receiving countries to take all necessary measures to ensure diplomats' freedom and physical protectionMar. 31, 2006.yomiuri


Thursday, March 30, 2006

China how to survive in China

Navigating crowds was difficult. He would let people by, let people pass, let people squeeze. He was polite. They didn’t care. They plowed, they maneuvered, they did not say thank you

Lesson Four:
If someone actually does something nice for you, do not say “thank you”. Do not even acknowledge it. In fact, shoot a nasty look at themtalktalkChina


China -Italy

BEIJING, China (AP) -- China has expressed "dissatisfaction" over comments by Italy's Premier Silvio Berlusconi that Chinese communists boiled babies for fertilizer.

Berlusconi said Sunday that according to "The Black Book of Communism ... in Mao's China, the communists didn't eat babies, but they boiled them to fertilize the fields."

"The Black Book of Communism" is an 846-page history of communism by six academics that was published in 1997. It concluded that communism -- through deportations and famine, labor camps and executions -- killed at least 85 million people in the Soviet Union, China, Cambodia and elsewhere.CNN March 29, 2006


Wednesday, March 29, 2006

How history is being used by Korea

See also
the issue of the Sea of Japan
the issue of the division of Korean peninsula
Korean hisotry shaped by ignoring the important documents/Mimana=Kaya
Korean history shaped by imagination
Evil Japan discovered again
leftist view of the Korean war
learning to hate
This is how we defend the great Korean history
nogun ri massacre
Korean history for nationalism
We are forced again
I have shown that holocaust in China is sometimes being used to get what China
Korea is using the same tactics to get what she wants.
Korea was a colonized nation. I admit that in this sense she was a victim. but she is using this victimness to get what is irrelavat to it.

Let me illustrate.

Kimchi is more than a food for the Koreans. It is a kind of national symbol and part of the national identity for Korea. Kimchi is Korean traditional culture itself. Korea has a saying that "the taste of kimchi is the taste of your mother's fingertips" (The Independent: October 9, 2000). Thus, to use the term "kimchi" for imitation kimchi is not acceptable for the Koreans, and even it might insult Korean culture.

Finally, we cannot forget the sad history between Korea and Japan, Japan's colonization of Korea during World War. Some Koreans do not have good feelings toward Japan and regard the kimchi dispute as another invasion by Japan. There are complex sentiments between Japan and Korea because of their history, and the kimchi issue raised new conflict between the two countries.
(TED) Projects

Kimichi has nothing to do with our past.

''The (South Korean) government urges the Japanese government to immediately retract its unreasonable and intolerable claim over Dokdo, which is an integral part of our territory,'' the Foreign Ministry said in a statement.
The statement was released to protest the results of the Japanese education ministry's annual textbook screening, released Wednesday. The ministry asked for revisions to references made to the islets to clarify that they are Japanese territory.
South Korea ''reaffirms it would sternly deal with the Dokdo issue in the context of protecting its own territory,'' the Foreign Ministry statement says.
The statement also denounces the Japanese government for trying to glorify past aggression into neighboring countries and drumming into Japanese youth Japan's territorial claim over the islets that Japan had once forcibly taken over from Korea.
It says Japan's claim over the islets is ''clear manifestation'' of its ''whitewashing, distorting and glorifying'' of past history, along with visits to the war-related Yasukuni Shrine, where war criminals are enshrined together with war dead.
South Korea and Japan have seen their relations sink to their lowest point after a Japanese local assembly designated 'Takeshima Day'' last year.SEOUL, March 30 KYODO

Takeshima has nothing to do with the colonization.
Japan claims that Japanese fishermen discoverd the island as late as 1616link and used it as a base for fishing.
Korea have a different story.(I think Japan's claim is right, but that does not matter here)
Japan and korea has had a dispute over the territory over there since around that time.

The colonization started in 1910 and ended in 1945.
Takeshima issue has nothing do with the colonization, nor glorification of history.
Japan suggested Korean to send the issue to ICJ.Korea rejected probably because she know she would lose.Instead, she is using emotioanl, illogical, hysterical tactics.
I am sick and tired of this kind of ureasonable claim by Korea.
(By the way, my elder brother told me that when I was three years old, I took his toy box, and shouted and cried, jumped and thumped my chest"this is mine!" "this is mine!".Not knowing what to do my brother asked me to ask my mother. I asked her, and she told me it is his. My brother said I understood quite easily that that was his toybox. You know what I am getting at.)

I think Korea's abuse of history is clear when we compare her attitude toward Japan and the U,S, North Korea, and South Korea herself.
The U.S.hisotorty textbook does not mention No gun massacre, yet South Korean government has never picked up this topic to the U.S.
The North Korea government is glorifiying and whitewashing its history and its present situation,and yet South Korea does not complain about it but hold the sunshine policy.
South Korea's history textbook does not mention her own massacre at Vietnam, at Korean War, but when it comes to Japan, its people go crazy. [1]

Ironically,a Korean professor is beginning to realize its hipocracy.

서울대 이영훈 교수는 "노무현 대통령이 이미 대중의 정서로 자리 잡은 맹목적인 반일주의을 정치적 수단으로 동원하고 있다"고 주장했다.
ソウル大イ・ヨンフン教授は "ノ・ムヒョン大統領がもう大衆の情で落ち着いた盲目的なバンイルズウィウル政治的手段に動員している"と主張した

이와 관련, 이 교수는 "구한말에 대한 역사왜곡도 심각하고, 일본 제국주의 시대의 왜곡도 엄중하다"면서
これと関連,この教授は "旧韓国末に対する歴史歪曲も深刻で,日本帝国主義時代の歪曲も厳重だ"と 韓国日報 2006/03/29.

A professor at Soul University said the president Roh was using aniti-Japanese sentiment of the mass to get the benifit. In related to this.The historical distortion of the late Chosun period is serious and that of the Japanese rule is grave as well


OK, so the Nogeun-ri film is complete
I don’t want to use one independent filmmaker’s take on history to be indicative of attitudes as a whole, but after the success of “Welcome to Dongmakgol,” one has to ask whether Koreans and Americans view their shared history in remotely the same way. This is particularly the case with younger Koreans whose collective memory of the Korean War and the role the United States played in it is being shaped by films like this and “Dongmakgol.”

It is good that Americans begins to realize that younger Korean's view on history is haped by fiction.

It seems that there is a sign that even China has just begun to change its policy.





2006年3月28日3時8分 読売新聞

It says a Chinese specialist insisted that it didn't pay to base international issues on history issue.

I hope Korea government will learn the same lesson.

Today Vietnam is indeed friendly with Korea - but a different Korea. It's all the more staggering as South Korea was one of the few countries that sent troops - over 340,000 between 1966 and 1972, including future coup-maker and president Roh Tae-woo - to fight on Saigon's side. America paid them well, in dollars that fueled South Korea's industrial take-off. And fight they did, with a grim reputation for brutality (skinning victims alive a speciality, allegedly.) In bars in Seoul, hard-faced men still rant that, left to them, Vietnam would not have been lost. Last year when the Hankyore Shinmun, a radical Seoul daily, ran an expose of ROK forces' atrocities in Vietnam, irate veterans' groups trashed the paper's offices. There's a wider blind spot here. Koreans, North and South, endlessly rehearse their own grievances as victims: witness the current row over a revisionist Japanese school history textbook, which glosses over pre-1945 atrocities. Yet many an old POW recalls that the cruelest guards in Japanese camps were Korean.

Vietnamese, by contrast, seem readier to forgive and forget - or at any rate to move on. South Korean business is welcomed, despite regular cases of violence by male Korean managers against female Vietnamese workers. (Lest I seem to harp on this theme, my defense is twofold: it's true, and Korean hypocrisy gets my goat.) But the odd slap hasn't stopped Hanoi from forging far warmer political ties over the past decade with Seoul than Pyongyang. This has its ironies. The first South Korean prime minister to visit Hanoi, a former refugee from North Korea, looked less than enthused by the statutory trip to pay respects at Ho Chi Minh's shrine. Still, business is business. By contrast, the unspoken question from his hosts to Kim Yong-nam will have been: So, comrade, but what have you got to offerJuly 18, 2001 By Aidan Foster-Carter Asian times

Stop Teaching Prejudice

What I do not look forward to is dealing with a new crop of students brainwashed by their middle school teachers to harbor an unreasonable, and unjustifiable, hatred toward America and Americans. I blame the Korean history teacher for this. They seem to promote prejudice, and students being students, soak up what is said, never questioning their teachers. How unfortunate

Korea times03-22-2006Kathryn R. McNeil
Naju, South Cholla Province



ヘレン ミアーズ アマゾンは戦後の日本を知る上で必読だと思う。裏から言うと、西洋を鏡としてきた日本の成長と失墜があまりにも明快に描かれている。戦後発禁本になったという意味がよくわかる。歴史における真実というのは何かはわからないがとにかく説得的であり、欧米人には痛すぎる本なのかもしれない。で、だからと言って日本が正しかったと言っているわけでもないところがバランス感覚があるところだと思う。英語版
Mirror for Americans, Japan: Books: Helen Mearsamazon



差別 descrimination in Japan

Nationality Law is unconstitutional, the Tokyo District Court on Wednesday granted Japanese nationality to nine children fathered by Japanese to Filipinas.

The children were born out of wedlock, which meant they were not eligible for Japanese nationality under a Nationality Law provision requiring their parents to be married after the children were born.

The court ruled that the provision was a violation of Article 14 in the the Constitution, which guarantees equality before the law.

In the ruling, Presiding Judge Hiroyuki Kanno said that "different treatment based on whether the parents are married or not violates the Constitution, which guarantees equality before the law."

"Using only the superficial form of legal marriage is not a realistic way of uniformly deciding the closeness of the parent-child relationship or the strength of the ties between the child and Japan," the court ruled.Asahi: March 29,2006)


Korean King 1910 document

Here is a copy of an Imperial mandate by Korean emperor 純宗皇帝 when Korea was to be annexed;

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Emperor says here,

I suceeded a profession of non-virtue and hardship,

Until today, I ordered and tried new government ordinances,

it was not yet completed but weakness of this country increased and it is exhausted, and there is no hope to regain power.

Day and night I worried but there is no policy available and I stood absent-mindedly.

If we lose lots of benefits, we can’t settle them at the end.

Rather we’d better entrust it to others in order to get complete way and innovative result.

Therefore, I thought calmly by myself and decided myself,

I am going to give the sovereignty of Korea to the neighbouring country Japan’s His majesty the Emperor, whom I have been looking up from bottom of my heart, in order to strengthen peace over the far east and to protect public welfare around the area.

So all the people of Korea should think about the situation about this country, do one’s job without anxiety, obey the new cultural policy of Imperial Japan and enjoy happiness.

My decision today doesn’t mean that I forgot the people of Korea,

it is due to the intention to relieve and let live the people of Korea.

So all the people should remember my will.


pacifist at occidentalism


Monday, March 27, 2006

The ill-treatment of POWs ーーーWhat should be done?

The Japanese Army’s ill treatment of POWs is notorious internationally.
Nanjin massacre, the unit 731, and the Bataan Death March - -- -all of the case are mainly ill-treatment of POW.

The Bataan Death March began at Mariveles on 10 April, and lasted for a week. During this hellish march, sick and starving prisoners were beaten randomly and denied any water.The US Army Center for Military History has estimated that as many as 650 American POWs and between 5,000-10,000 Filipino POWs were killed during the Bataan Death March.linklink

Nanjin massacre happened during occupation of Nanjin from noveber 1937 to February 1938.40000 to 100,000 Chinese captives and POWs were massacred.

The unit 731 was the secret military medical unit.It performed brutal human experimentations on living POWs to study the effect of biological weapons.It used boilogical weapons on Chinese cities.<,linklink
testimony(in Japanese)linklink

We should not turn away from history.
Listen to the voice of victims.
For four years I was kept in solitary confinement and had no companionship at all. I was always blindfolded, or had to wear a blindfold when someone came into the room. I never saw another human being. The initial effect is eerie, but eventually you become accustomed to it

I had to get what exercise I could while chained to the wall. I had five minutes a day to go to the bathroom; for the rest of the time I had to use a

For six days we received neither food nor water! We used our spoons to catch drops of rain.

We were surrounded by heavy tanks. During the night bright searchlights blinded us, so that sleep was impossible. We napped from time to time, standing up and leaning against each other. It was keeping us warmer that sitting on the frozen ground.

Many of us were near collapse. One of our comrades went mad, he jumped around wildly, wailing and whimpering. he was shot at once. His body was lying on the ground, and we were not allowed to come near him. He was not he only one. Each suspicious movement caused the guards to shoot into the crowd, and a few were always

And look at what they did to defenseless soldiers!
On one occasion he commented to a group of senior officers that very few ・・・ seemed to be taken prisoner.

"Oh, we could take more if we wanted to," one of the officers replied. "But our boys don't like to take prisoners.

"It doesn't encourage the rest to surrender when they hear of their buddies being marched out on the flying field and machine-guns turned loose on them."

his allegations are supported by other ・・・・ diarists, who report that ・・・・・, in particular, did not take many prisoners. Prof Aldrich also discovered new diaries showing that ・・・ generals worried about the abuse of human remains by their troops.

They were particularly concerned that the skulls of dead ・・・・ soldiers were often displayed as gruesome mascots by some units, while ....marines made a speciality of collecting ears.

".... are still being shot all over the place," he wrote. "The necessity for capturing them has ceased to worry anyone. ...soldiers are just so much machine-gun practice. Too many of our soldiers are tied up guarding them."link

And human experimentation!!
"When the needle entered the brain substance, she complained of acute pain in the neck. In order to develop more decided reaction, the strength of the current was increased by drawing out the wooden cylinder one inch. When communication was made with the needles, her countenance exhibited great distress, and she began to cry. Very soon, the left hand was extended as if in the act of taking hold of some object in front of her; the arm presently was agitated with clonic spasm; her eyes became fixed with pupils widely dilated; her lips were blue, and she frothed at the mouth; her breathing became stertorous; she lost consciousness and was violently convulsed on the left side. The convulsion lasted five minutes, and was succeeded by a coma. She returned to consciousness in twenty minutes from the beginning of the attack, and complained of some weakness and vertigo.">

she died a few days later, and her death certificate stated that she died from cancerDavid J. Rothman

What rationalizes ill-treatment of POWs?
"If you don't violate someone's human rights some of the time, you probably aren't doing your job," said one official

"We would be doing a great service to all nations to blur the distinction between combatants and stateless terrorists,”

"They will be handled not as prisoners of war, because they’re not, but as unlawful combatants do not have any rights under the Geneva Convention.

"We have indicated that we do plan to, for the most part, treat them in a manner that is reasonably consistent with the Geneva conventions, to the extent they are appropriate.”link

And denial?
officials categorically denied these false claims on numerous occasions.・・・・I would ... like to state categorically and unequivocally that these charges are entirely false; the・・・ forces have not used, and are not using, any sort of bacteriological warfarelink

Oh,god, Japanese are cruel,savage, barbarian, aren't they?

But click the link.<1> is not what happened to the U.S.POW but it is told by a former Beirut Hostage on the Guantanamo Prisoners.<2>is not what happened at the battan death march but what American soldiers did to German Pows.and <3> is not not description of Nanjin Massacre but what Amercian and Austraisan soldiers did to Japanese soldiers, and <4> is not what the unit 731 did but an desctiption of experimentaion on an Irish girl by an American doctor.<5> is not Japanese revisionist's comment but what an U.S. official and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld said about detainees at Guantanamo Bay.<6> is not Japanese politician's statement but the statement of the U.S official to the allegation that the U.S used biological warfare during Korean

It is not my intention to portray the U.S. as an evil country.On the contrary, the U.S. has been a good teacher for Japan, and I respect the country.It is just that since the U.S. is the most open country, it was easy to find the imformation.It is harder to find the detail of the massacre in the country like China and Korea where the freedom of speech is not protected.But of course, we can find the similar cases in each country.(See China's bloody century, Massacres of civillianslink

I am not trying to whitewash what Japan did, I listed the links about Japan's cases on this post, so you can read them:they illustlate the maddness at war.The madness is in us, in the humanity.There are heros such as Hugh Thompson, My Lai,but not everyone can be a hero.We need to keepd keep Eichmann in mind and we should also take notice of the experiment by Stanley Milgram.

My point is that I just want you to notice that ill-treatment of Pows are not only Japan's problem, but also world's problem.
I want you to realise that every country tend to cover up and, when revealed, every country tris to rationalize the massacre,
I want you to recoginize how important to investigate the truth for both sides---one who alleges and the other who are alledged.
It is much more profittable to aproach this issue as a universal issue rather than the issue of one nation.
And if you turn away from what the US,China, Korea did, but blame only Japan, you are racist, you are using this issue not to gain an insight on the issue but only to gain the upperhand of Japan.>

Now why is it that the massacre happened?I'll list some reasons I came across.

Japanese people believed everything was justifiable if it was done for the sake of the country and "Tenno Heika"

[E]ugenic and racist ideologies were prevalent in Japan, as well as in the Western countries.

Since POWs were destined to be excuted anyway, some doctors rationalized their act by thinking
it was better to utilize them for research and getting precious data than merely to execute them.Takashi Tsuchiya

And,other doctors explain,
The defense's argument was that experimentation with human beings had been accepted medical procedure. The question, they asked, is whether "medical experimentation can be considered a crime." The prosecution did not argue this, but condemned the experiments because they had been used for political and racial purposes. David J. Rothman

Japanese soldiers were trained to commit suicide when they got captured,that partly explains the ill treatment of the POW.For their conciousness, there were little reason to preserve captives's lives when they themselves were commited to kill themselves when captured.

In relatiion to this,we should also take note of the fact that
Individually administered punishments (i.e. vindictive bashings by camp guards) were a major issue at the Tribunal. Such beatings were rampant, whether in the actual camps or on work siteslink

And also the sentiment of revenge partly explain the ill-treatment of POW.Imagine your friends are killed in front of you, and the murderer is now here as a POW. It is easy to treat him badly.Besides it is pointed out Japanese troop lacked logistic, they did not bring enough food when they invaded, so they looted where they invaded.

These psychological,ideological and material factors must have played an improtant role but they are not necessary for the tradgedy to happen.

But Gray's book shows that 'honest, conscientious, compassionate' physicans have been led into bad practice by a bad system."David J. Rothman

Eileen Welsome's book, "The Plutonium Files," (Dial Press, 1999), documents radiation experiments on human beings in the United States from the 1940s, after the exposure of Nazi experiments and the articulation of the Nuremburg Code. Some of the doctors who conducted these experiments and were later interviewed about them, confessed that they knew of the Nurmeberg Code, but did not think it applied to them--that code was for the barbarian NazisDavid J. Rothman

We need a system to prevent the massacre.
There was no system to administer POW matters with proper authority and in a unified fashion. link

The women, ranging from enlisted soldiers to officers, have reported poor medical treatment, lack of counseling and incomplete criminal investigations by military officials. Some say they were threatened with punishment after reporting
(This is the case of woman victims raped by fellow American soldiers)
So we need to build up the system to check and address the matter .
And as Rummel points out,of course democracy is the most essential element to prevent the democide .However, that is not good enough, even in the most developed country such as the U.S. the democide take place.
The democraitc system without checks from outside are likely to fail,
The U.S mistreatment of German POWs,or the high rape rate by GI's at the occupied cities by G.I. are cases in point.

I think what is needed,in addition to the democratic administration within the system,is the constant check from the third party,a special committee and journalists that check and report to the world what is happening in the place like the battle fields and prison camps and medical research centers and occupied areas, where life is most likely to be endangered.


American troops 'murdered Japanese PoWs'
By Ben Fenton
(Filed: 06/08/2005)

American and Australian soldiers massacred Japanese prisoners of war, according to one of the most detailed studies of memoirs of the Second World War in the Pacific, published this week.

It also discloses that the soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army were far from the cruel, mindless troops of popular legend, and that Gen Douglas MacArthur wanted to launch nuclear strikes on the Soviet Union from an underground airstrip in Britain.

On one occasion he commented to a group of senior officers that very few Japanese seemed to be taken prisoner.

"Oh, we could take more if we wanted to," one of the officers replied. "But our boys don't like to take prisoners.

"It doesn't encourage the rest to surrender when they hear of their buddies being marched out on the flying field and machine-guns turned loose on them."

his allegations are supported by other American diarists, who report that the US marines, in particular, did not take many prisoners. Prof Aldrich also discovered new diaries showing that American generals worried about the abuse of human remains by their troops.

They were particularly concerned that the skulls of dead Japanese soldiers were often displayed as gruesome mascots by some units, while US marines made a speciality of collecting ears.

Australian troops are also shown not to like taking prisoners. Prof Aldrich quotes the 1943 diary of Eddie Stanton, an Australian posted to Goodenough Island off Papua New Guinea. "Japanese are still being shot all over the place," he wrote. "The necessity for capturing them has ceased to worry anyone. Nippo soldiers are just so much machine-gun practice. Too many of our soldiers are tied up guarding them."

While the US Government publicly denounces the use of torture, all of the national security officials interviewed defended the use of violence against captives as "just and necessary",

"If you don't violate someone's human rights some of the time, you probably aren't doing your job," said one official who has supervised the capture and transfer of accused terrorists. "I don't think we want to be promoting a view of zero tolerance on this."

Some officials estimated that fewer than 100 captives have been transferred to third countries. But thousands have been arrested and held with US assistance in countries known for brutal treatment of prisoners, the officials said.By Dana Priest and Barton Gellman
December 27 2002

"We would be doing a great service to all nations to blur the distinction between combatants and stateless terrorists,”

"They will be handled not as prisoners of war, because they’re not, but as unlawful combatants do not have any rights under the Geneva Convention.

"We have indicated that we do plan to, for the most part, treat them in a manner that is reasonably consistent with the Geneva conventions, to the extent they are appropriate.”link

As I understand it, technically unlawful combatants do not have any rights under the Geneva Conventions

US Defence Secretary, Donald Rumsfeldlink

US judge says Guantanamo inmates have 'no rights'

"War is war, and it has never been the case that when you captured a combatant you have to give them a jury trial in your civil courts," Judge Scalia said, during a talk on March 8 at the University of Freiburg in Switzerland, according to Newsweek.

"Foreigners, in foreign countries, have no rights under the American Constitution... Nobody has ever thought otherwise."linkTimes Online

The link deals with abuse
of POWs

I have written this post after reading the Korea liberator. I like the blog,but I thought either the author was a bit naive about his own country or he/she was unfair about this point..
The following is how the U.S government responded to the "The Forgotten War2

'...US commanders repeatedly, and without ambiguity, ordered forces under their control to target and kill Korean refugees caught on the battlefield.'

'...up to 400 South Korean civilians gathered by the bridge were killed by US forces from the 7th Cavalry Regiment.

' late as January 1951, the US 8th Army was detailing all units in Korea that refugees be attacked with all available fire including bombing.'

Previously, the US Army had dismissed the claims of South Korean survivors who, since 1960, had been trying to tell the truth about the killings at No Gun Ri. The Army said that US forces were not even in the area of No Gun Ri at the time of the killings.


Detail from US Air Force memo
The Pentagon inquiry into No Gun Ri was finally released in January 2001. The basis of its conclusions are doubtful. The investigation acknowledged the killing of civilians at No Gun Ri by US forces, but it concluded that the killings that took place there were not deliberate attacks but 'an unfortunate tragedy inherent to war'.

'I think the American government, the Pentagon and most government agencies don't want to see the truth come out if it will embarrass the government.I think it's almost a rule of political science. The government will always lie about embarrassing matters. And when you are up in the Pentagon a full Colonel and have a chance to make General, and General with the chance to become Chief of Staff, there's as much politics high in the Pentagon as there is in the halls of Congress. And I think that the Army just chose to try and down play the terrible character of Army leadership in 1950.'

The only major American investigation into the killing of refugees focused exclusively on the activities of the US Army over a small geographic area during one month of a conflict that lasted three years. Contradicting testimony from veterans and Korean survivors, the report concluded that there was no evidence to suggest that orders to kill civilians were given at No Gun Ri.BBC

Millions were in germ war tests

Much of Britain was exposed to bacteria sprayed in secret trials

Antony Barnett, public affairs editor
Sunday April 21, 2002
The Observer

Japan the U.S. 米軍移転費

The move of some 7,000 U.S. marines from Okinawa island to the U.S. territory of Guam is part of a broader plan to streamline the 50,000 U.S. forces based in Japan and give Japan's military greater responsibility for security in the Asia-Pacific.

The U.S. has estimated the total cost of relocation at $10 billion, a Defense Agency spokesman said on condition of anonymity, citing agency policy.

Washington has reportedly told Tokyo that the relocation, which would reduce some of Okinawa's burden in hosting American forces, would take decades unless Japan chips in a significant amount. The United States wants Japan to pay 75 percent of the cost, more than twice as much as the $3 billion Tokyo has offered to pay -- mostly in the form of loans for U.S. companies to cover the cost of the move -- according to media reports.

American troops have been stationed in Japan since the end of World War II in 1945.AP


Saturday, March 25, 2006

The future-oriented relation with Korea

I've found an interesting blog today by a Korean person.
The following article is very future-oriented.It suggests very promising way Japan and Korea should go.
2. Japan

Korea had most difficult relationship with Japan than any other country because of repeated invasions from the country. Japanese colonization is remembered as the most humiliating moment of Korean history.

In spite of the grudge, Japan has been an ally rather than an enemy since the restoration of diplomatic relationship in 1965. Japan helped Korean economic development by providing technical assistance. In turn Korea has become one of largest markets for Japanese companies resulting in ever worsening trade deficit in Korean side. Cultural exchange is also remarkable. Even before the lifting of ban on Japanese cultural products, Japanese popular culture such as video games, fashion and animations were popular among Koreans. Recently Japanese novels gained a strong foothold among young Korean readers. With the hit of Korean soap drama, Winter Sonata, Japan became the first buyer of Korean dramas. Co-hosting of World Cup games and airing of Korean dramas in Japan helped to balance the cultural exchange between two countries.

Read the rest
All we need is a rational discussion.

Friday, March 24, 2006

Examining history - -- history is fun!!

I am not a historian, nor am I trained to critacally read historical documents.( My major was philosophy but that was a long time ago) I hated history when I was student.just memorization of names and times.But these days I've found it interesting.

When I studied Korea under Japanese rule, and Nanjin Massacre, I realsized that there are a lot of versions of history.A historian chooses the subject matter.
For instance, when you are writing about history of a nation, and if you belong to the nation, it is natural that you want to discover good things about your nation and
you don't want to see the bad things about your nation.
Thus, Japanese do not want to hear the massacre the Japanese soldiers did during the war, and Koreans do not want to hear its equivalent during the Korean war, for instance.
Likewise,Japanese want to believe Japan contributed a lot to the colonized nations while Koreans want to believe that she could develop without help of others.
Depending on your perspective, you choose different subject matters, and topics.
Probably most of the time historians have, conciously or unconciously, the purpose, or purposes, in writing the story.
It has been written, for instance,
in order to show the glory of of God.
in oder to show the legitimacy or illegitimacy of status quo.
in order to settle the present issue.
in order to cure the wounds of the past.[1]

Let's take Nanjin Massacre for instance.What happened in Nanking?
Chinese "patriots" wants to talk about it. Japanese counterparts would not.
But once the topic is chosen, the battel starts.
You have to state the facts.Dependeing on your perspective, the following facts can be asserted.
1) Civilians were killed in Nanjin
2) POWs were killed in Nanjin.
3) POWs were excuted in Nanjin
4) The soldiers were killed in Nanjin.
Basically, Chinese "patriots" want to say 1) is true,whereas deniers argure 3)or 4) was the case.
The many historians hold 2) was the case.
(I am simplifying the matter for the sake of the argument).

When the facts are stated, you have to prove it by evidences.

Are there any evidences/reports?
If not why?

A history professor once told me to be very wary of preserved documents. "Ask yourself," she said, "who decided that this document should be saved, while others were very likely destroyed? Who was in charge when the decisions to spare or obliterate were made?"Deborah Peifer

Hence that there is no evidence does not necessariliy means there was no fact.
At the same time, it does not follow we can infer anything.
Chinse " patriots" want to say there are more people killed than the records show,
Japanese counterparts say no,no.

If there is an evidence/a report[2]
1)Is it admissable?/Is the person qualified?
Is it reported directrly ? it is based on herasay?

For instance,
From its very beginning, the legitimacy of the IMTFE was questioned by many.

All the eleven justices were from the victor nations. Except for the Indian justice, Radhabinod Pal, no judges had much experience in international law.

September 24, 1946. The eleven justices on bench.

Besides, had the trial been in a normal court, some of them would probably have been disqualified.

The Chinese justice, Mei Ju-ao, had no experience as a judge in China or elsewhere.

The U. S. S. R. representative, Major General I. M. Zaryanov, did not speak either Japanese or English, the two official languages of the tribunal.

The Philippine justice, Delfin Jaranilla, was a Bataan Death March survivor.

The Australian justice and the designated president of the tribunal, William Webb, had been involved in an investigation of Japanese atrocities in New Guinea.

Many argued the Tokyo Charter was ex post facto, or retroactive, legislation. The burden of criminality that made a failure to prevent war crimes also a crime, and the individuals' criminality for acts of states, had never been indictable in international law before the Axis powers'

It seems to me this is relatively fair judgment.
(But note that the fact some judges were disqualified does not mean the defendants were innocent.)

Bix disagrees.
the Indian judge Radhabinod Pal, whom Falk mis-describes as a "neutral analyst," was, in fact, a supporter of the pro-Axis Indian nationalist Chandra Bose, and thus hardly a reliable guide to understanding why Japanese interpretations of the Asia-Pacific War still inhibit Japan’s redress of past grievances. An ardent nationalist who viewed the imperialism of Western white men as the main source of evil in Asia, Pal was the only judge who justified, whitewashed, or cast doubt on virtually all evidence of Japanese atrocities submitted by the prosecution, even going so far as to deny that large numbers of rapes had occurred at Nanking.Herbert P. Bix

Well if Pal is not qualified for this reasons, why are other judges qualified?
Anyway, some argue that IMTFE was not fair partly because Pal was qualified but his judge was ignored, while others argue, like Bix, that it was fair partly because Pal is not qualified.

2)Was the report reliable?biased?
For what purpose was it reported/written?
Who reported it?
is the reporter a male or a female, black, white, a spy, a scholar,rich, poor,layman,specialist etc[3]

For instance,the judgment of the Tokyo trial was based on Timperly's document,and
the massacare school argue that
Although Timperley was working as an advisor to the Chiang Kai-shek's propaganda organization, it seemed he was motivated by his strong conviction against war rather than his personal sympathy with

"Some 'deniers' argue that Nanjing was much more peaceful than we generally think. They always show some photographs with Chinese refugees selling some food in the street or Chinese people smiling in the camps. They are forgetting about Japanese propaganda. The Imperial Army imposed strict

The author thinks that Timparley, who was an adivisor to Chinese army, is reliable while the photos of peaceful Nanjin are not reliable because they were taken under the influence of Japanese army.
On the other hand,the deniers argue the opposite;since Timberly was an adviser of Chinese ministry of imformation, his report is not reliable.And they point out you can find out the description of peaceful Nanjin even in the Documents of the Nanjin Safty Zone by Shushi Hsu, which was entirely under Chinese editorship and management[4]

2)'Is the story consistent with other evidences?Was the testimony crossexamined?

For example, the Chinese authority insist, based on one report, that 300000 people were killed.linkthe denier school counterargues, based on another report, that the population of Nanjin was only 200000 just before Japan's invasion, how can you kill 300000 people when there were only 200000 people in the first place? And the poulation increased after the invasion because the people who run away came back, realizing the Nanjin was slready in peace.see also linklink

Still another example is that based on one record,some Chinese insist a Chinese organization buried an average of 2600 bodies per day, deniers aruge that with the limited number of Chinese workers, and without bulldozers,it is practically impossible to bury that much.[5]

3) Evaluation of evidences.

What matters for history is not such a trivial fact as the cat is on the mat",but some siginificant facts.The fact that people died in Nanjin is not siginificant but the fact that civilians are killed is a siginificant fact.
However to assert the sinificant fact, you need to evaluate the evidence you have.
For instance,
"Are the subjects killed cvilians, POWs, soldiers? "
It depends on not only how you evaulate the situation, again based on evidences,documents,reports and testimonies, but also on the interpretation of the term .[6]

Prisoners of war

Art. 4. Prisoners of war are in the power of the hostile Government, but not of the individuals or corps who capture them.
They must be humanely treated.
All their personal belongings, except arms, horses, and military papers, remain their property


The qualifications of belligerents

Article 1. The laws, rights, and duties of war apply not only to armies, but also to militia and volunteer
corps fulfilling the following conditions:
1. To be commanded by a person responsible for his subordinates;
2. To have a fixed distinctive emblem recognizable at a distance;
3. To carry arms openly; and
4. To conduct their operations in accordance with the laws and customs of warSecond Peace Conference of The Hague, 1907

Based on these articles, deniers argue that since subjects killed do not fit in the categroy mentioned above, they are not POWS;for instance, chinese soldiers took off the uniforms and hide in the Safty Zone, carrying the pistols.

The Massacre school counterargues.

Until a more complete code of the laws of war has been issued, the High Contracting Parties deem it expedient to declare that, in cases not included in the Regulations adopted by them, the inhabitants and the belligerents remain under the protection and the rule of the principles of the law of nations, as they result from the usages established among civilized peoples, from the laws of humanity, and the dictates of the public conscience.The Hague, 1907

Based on this introductoion,the massacre school argue that deniers are wrong in interpreting the article.Besides, the way Japanese army checked whether the peroson is soldier or not was not appropriate.

4)Evaluations of fact

Even after you found the fact, still you can evaluate the fact in various ways.
For instance, was it legal or illegal? If the the subjects killed were civilians, it was illegal."Was it fair or unfair?Was it liberate the country or to invade the country?Some argue, of course,it was to invade the counrty, others argue that it was necessary to restore the peace as soon as possible.(Note that this is always used when aggressor try to justify their cause, at Hiroshima, Nanjin, Iraqi) Again, it depends on how you interpret "fair"and "liberation" and "invasion", and how you evaluate the whole situation.

What happened is cruel, brutal, mad,but I've found hisroy fun for the first time through studying pros and cons.

[1]What is hirory for?Beverley southgate
What is histroy E.H. Carr
It is very interesting to see the reveiws of hisotrical books.
The Good Man of Nanking : The Diaries of John Rabe
John Rabe was a German businessman, living and working in Nanking when the Japanese invaded and conquered the city in 1937. Rabe had lived in China for 30 years and had risen to the position of senior agent for the German conglomerate, Siemens. He was tasked with selling industrial equipment to the Chinese government, enabling the construction and maintenance of electrical, water, phone, and health care facilities.

Rabe also had terrible timing; he left war-torn China and made his home in Berlin, suffering under Russian atrocities and near-starvation starting in 1944. Ironically Rabe had been briefly imprisoned and questioned by the Gestapo after he wrote another letter to Hitler about Japanese behavior in China. Rabe received some aid from the Chinese Nationals when Madame Chang Kai Shek heard of his predicament in Berlin.

Overall, this is a very good read. The diary style is a little unusual, as Rabe was clearly writing for himself and his family, and not the general public. He is an excellent author with a keen sense of humor and his role in extraordinary times. The last part of the diaries, set in Berlin under Russian occupation show Rabe depressed and afraid, not knowing how he will support his family

It is hard to believe that some people really think this book is an evidence of the "Nanking Massacre". Have they really read this book carefully, they should have reached a different conclusion. I gave 3stars to this book because I think John Rabe wrote this diary quite honestly..... maybe too honest to propagate the Japanese Army's "atrocities".
Essencially, there are no massacre actually witnessed by those "objective" westerners.

Eyewitnesses to Massacre: American Missionaries Bear Witness to Japanese Atrocities in Nanjing
You can tell the quality of this book's account just by looking through the first few pages of the book, its specific and detailed style should establish the credentials within minutes. By clicking on the book icon, you can even read the first few pages (including TOC), of the book in PDF format.

One crucial question should be asked here: Did they really see the so-called "The Rape of Nanking / The Nanking Massacre"?
The clear answer everyone can get from this book is, NO.
In the perfect matter of fact, NO ONE EVER SAW "MASSACRE" AT ALL!!

On 12 Dec 1937, the night before the city was captured, the tens of thousands of retreating Chinese soldiers who disguised themselves as civilians poured into the Safety Zone in which the Nationalist Army had its headquarters, arsenal, antiaircraft batteries and everything. (The Documents, Rabe's diary, and in this book, p. 253: Diaries of L.S.C. Smythe, etc..)

other losses
The Book "Other Losses" tells the same story my father told. He was an ambulance driver in the war. After WW2 was over and his unit found out, the entire unit surrendered to the Americans who in turn sold(!) him and all others of his unit to the Russians for slave-labor in siberian coal mines. He managed to escape in 1951, but almost all others of his unit died of hunger and lack of food and medical help.

In this serious and heavily documented study, Canadian investigator James Bacque shows how American and French leaders (Eisenhower and De Gaulle) didn't respect the elementary rights of their german military inmates. Bacque estimates that denying these P.O.W sufficient food killed almost one million of them. And this is not a thing they could be proud of... In fact, Bacque shows us how they managed to hide this hidden genocide by destroying or manipulating several documents

Those who win the war get to write the major history books any way they want. Those who lose the war don't get to write any books. This book was written by an American soldier who saw what happened to the German soldiers after WW II.


I cannot conceive how any rational reader can believe Mr. Bacque's conclusions. A simple education in math and reading comprehension at a basic level will be all the rope anyone needs to hang this book. The table that he sites as "the smoking gun" is the most commonly refuted precisely because it is so easy. Either there were only 1/10 the prisoners with a 36% death rate or there were 10 times the # of prisoners with a 3.6% death rate. People should really read what they have before them.

In a professional history magazine it was stated that Ambrose, other U.S. historians and German scholars wanted to review the allegations.

The author refused to show up! Last I heard in this debate is that there was a selective use of data (small population size) and poor use of statistics.

It is also interesting to note that when the Japanese reviewer deniesthe massacre, some says, it's "embarassing", "one sick puppy" etc while when others deny the massacre by the U.S. nobody comment on the denier.see thelink
[3] A feminist wants to reexamine the history because it has been written in veiw of male's perspective.
p137[南京事件」の真実 北村稔 文春新書
p234 The Nanking massacre by higashinakano

I have found the photos Kajimoto is talking about. He claims that the peope below are forced to laugh.
The photo are from Asahi Newspaper.
the photos

Dec 17
the right;Japaenese soldiers shopping 5 days after the occupation.
the center/top:fields in Nanking
the center/ bottom:the refugees protected by Imperial army
the left:peaceful scenery of barbars

Dec 20
the right/top: Chinese soldeirs getteing medical treatment 治療を受けている支那傷病兵
the left/top: Chinese The surrender soldier who satisfies an appetite
the center: The friendlyscenery after the bombardment in Nanjing Castle
the right/bottom:The Japanese commanding officer is talkin to the Chinese major.
the left/ bottom: freindly senery in the Nanking Castle.

Dec 25 the photo probably taken on Dec23
the right/top:Japanese soldiers play with Chinese children with a toy tank
the left/ top kids are having fun with a broken a carriage
the right/ bottom;freindly relatiion develope through the activety of the imperial medical team.
the left/bottom:The hymn which leaks out from a garden of a Chinese church, praising the light of peace,

Dec 30 the photo probably taken on Dec 28

the right:let's fix shoes for the coming new year
the center/ top:have some milk.
the left/top A boy, you must cure the trachoma
the left/bottom:change new gauze for the happy new year.

Feb 13
the right/top:Water service revived
the right/bottom:pipe for water
the left/bottom:water from Yangtze River is being purified,
the left/bottom:Spring has come over the vender shops.

Jan 3
3000 more citizen celebrate a new self-government committee,waiving a Japanese flage and a new Nanking flag.

Japanese soldeirs making Buddhist style tombs for the nameless Chinese soldiers killed at the battle field in Nanking and are praying to console the souls of the deads.

(update May 1youth tube)

It is interesting to compare thses photos with the photos on this Chinese site.
Denier school suspect the authenticity of the photos.
The massacre school counterargueslinklink

[5]p57 What really happened in Nanking /sekai syuppan/tanaka masaaki
[6] This is a serious problem when you try to understand the remote past and a radically different culture.

第十章 判定 


















(『南京大残虐事件資料集 第1巻』P398~P399) 資料:極東国際軍事裁判判決

Even the so-called denier like Hiagashinakano admit that there was a mass killing.
If Chinese soldiers attacked Japanese troop in the safty zone, the Gun battle would begin and it is not safty zone anymore.... At Iraqi in 2003, such sweeping away of remnants was carried out.....As a result of this sweeping out the soldiers in the safty zone, Japanese soldiers arrested many illegal Chinese guerillas. And in the daytime, thousands of those rebelious was exucuted at Yangtze River.

南京事件「証拠写真」を検証する (単行本)
東中野 修道 (著p45


China --- unfreedom of speech 中国ー言論の不自由

A Chinese Journalist in Jail
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Published: March 24, 2006

As China moves ahead steadily in the global marketplace, its ultimate success will depend not just on its buying power. Among other things, China must have a free press and a judicial system based on the rule of law rather than political power

Mr. Zhao is not the only journalist unjustly jailed in China, and it is fair to say that our concern is heightened by his association with The Times. But his arrest shows how China can too easily use the courts to silence any journalist who crosses some unseen line of behavior and offends some unnamed person in powerlink


North Korea 北朝鮮 総連

OSAKA, Japan, March 23 (UPI) -- Japanese police Thursday raided an office with links to North Korea in connection with the 1980 abduction of a Japanese national by North Korean agents.

Police searched the Osaka office of the General Association of Korean Residents in Japan, a pro-Pyongyang group. A police spokesman said the raid was connected with the abduction of Tadaaki Hara, who was a 43-year-old noodle shop employee in Osaka when he disappeared from a beach in southwestern Japan in 1980.

Japanese police believe he was kidnapped by North Korean agents and suspect that a 74-year-old manager of the noodle shop was involved in the abduction, Kyodo News reported.

It was the first raid by Japanese police in connection with Hara's case after they obtained an arrest warrant last month for former North Korean agent Sin Guang Su, 76link


Thursday, March 23, 2006

North Korea 北朝鮮

N.Korean defector says disabled newborns are killed
22 Mar 2006 12:13:22 GMT
Source: Reuters
SEOUL, March 22 (Reuters) - North Korea has no people with physical disabilities because they are killed
almost as soon as they are born, a physician who defected from the communist state said on Wednesday.


Attitudes toward the past mass murder---what should be done.

What should be an appropriate attitude toward hisotry of mass murder? I once wrote there should be no taboo on historical records.attitude toward the past mass murder (2) Herber bix has another answer.
In short, Nanking 1937 needs to be read in a way that highlights the universal within the particular. Set it against the background of the Russian rape of German women in postwar occupied Germany (1945-49), or the French torture of civilians during the Algerian War (1954-62) or the American atrocities at No Gun Ri hamlet early in the Korean War (1950-53). Compare the logic of Japan’s campaign in 1930s China with the American colonial war of aggression in Iraq, now generating war atrocities on a virtually daily basis, or with the American murder of Afghanis prisoners at the U.S. Baghran air base in Afghanistan, or the American mistreatment of war prisoners held in cages at the U.S. Guantanamo base in Cuba. And don’t forget the lessons of the atrocities in Nanking when reading of the atrocious policies that Israeli governments (past but especially present) pursue against the Palestinians for the sake of Israeli "settlements" and "outposts" built illegally on stolen land. By conjuring the sight of these still fresh, unhealed crimes this book should enlighten and anger its readersHerbert Bix

I think this is close to what I have done with comfort women, torture, massacres during Japanese colonization.
He also suggests that the future study should be directed at
"why aggressor commit crimes" That is also important. and I think we should also study why the war takes place in the first place, how we can prevernt it happen.Rumme has one answer.

During this century's wars, there were some 38 million battle deaths, but almost four times more people&emdash;at least 170 million&emdash;were killed by governments for ethnic, racial, tribal, religious, or political reasons. I call this phenomenon democide, and it means that authoritarian and totalitarian governments are more deadly than war.

Many people are aware that some 60 million people died during World War II. What's much less well known is that only about 16 million of the World War II deaths involved combatants.

When you have a very powerful dictatorship, it doesn't follow automatically that a country will be violent. But I find the most violent countries are authoritarian or totalitarian.

The Freeman: Your research ought to give one renewed appreciation for the greater peace of the nineteenth century, the heyday of classical liberalism.

Rummel: Yes. During earlier eras, whenever power has been unlimited, savagery was horrifying.

I conclude that nobody can be trusted with unlimited power. The more power a regime has, the more likely people will be killed. This is a major reason for promoting freedom.

The Freeman: Tell us about your findings on peace.

Rummel: First, long-established democracies don't wage war on each other, and they rarely commit other kinds of violence against each other, either.

Second, the more democratic two countries are, the less likely they will go to war against each other.

Third, the more democratic a country is, the lower the level of violence when there's a conflict with another country. [p. 401]

Fourth, the more democratic a country, the less likely it will have domestic political violence.

Fifth, the bottom line: democratic freedom is a method of nonviolence.

The Freeman: What do you mean by democratic?

Rummel: People have equal rights before the law. Fundamental civil liberties like freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, freedom of association. Free markets. Constitutional limitations on government power. Policies and leaders are determined through open, competitive elections where at least two-thirds of adult males have the franchise.

The Freeman: Why do you think liberal democracies tend to be peaceful?

Rummel: Power is dispersed through many different families, churches, schools, universities, corporations, partnerships, business associations, scientific societies, unions, clubs, and myriad other associations. There's plenty of competition, and people have overlapping interests. The social order isn't controlled by anybody&emdash;it evolves spontaneously.

Democracy is a culture of political compromise, free exchange, peaceful negotiation, toleration of differences. Because time is needed for a democratic culture to develop and gain widespread acceptance, I stress that a peace dividend is achieved as a democracy becomes well-established.

Even though there might be a lot of government interference in daily life through minimum-wage laws, environmental laws, drug prohibition, government schools, and other policies, as long as a democratic culture remains strong, government officials must still negotiate with each other as well as with private interests.

By contrast, as Hayek explained in The Road to Serfdom&emdash;in his famous chapter Why the worst get on top&emdash;centralized government power attracts aggressive, domineering personalities. They are the most likely to gain power. And the more power they have, naturally the less subject they are to restraint. The greater the likelihood such a country will pursue aggressive policies. The highest risks of war occur when two dictators face each other. There's likely to be a struggle for supremacy.

Another important reason why democracies tend to be peaceful is that people have a say in whether their government goes to war. They don't want to die, they don't want to see their children become casualties, they don't want the higher taxes, regimentation, inflation, and everything else that comes with war.

When democracies do enter a war for reasons other than self-defense, politicians often find it necessary to deceive the public. In [p. 402] 1916, this was the case when Woodrow Wilson campaigned on a promise to keep the United States out of World War I, then maneuvered the country into it. And again in 1940, Franklin Roosevelt campaigned on a promise to keep out of World War II, then conducted foreign policy not as a neutral but as an ally of Great Britain and an enemy of Germany. My point is that in the United States, a liberal democracy, there was considerable popular opposition to entering foreign wars, and both presidents deceived the public, which wanted to remain at peace.Rudolph Rummel

(emphasis mine)
I think his argument is clear and convincing. I want to study his site more carefully.[1]

Apology, responsibity and reparations.

Japan has apologized several times to China for what she had done during the war, but some Chinese people still complain. They say Japan should apologize in a official written document .
Some Japanese people, on the other hand, are getting tired of Chinese agents calling for apology whenever there are other political issues between two countries.
My suggestion is that Japanese goverment should aplogize to the individul victims on condition that China gives people maximum freedom of speech.
Japan apologized, but Chinese governemt keeps the imformation from people.Chinese government manipulates people so that she strenghen nationalism. Such as it is, any apology from Japanese government will turn out to be nothing.I think my suggestion is fair to both victims and Chinese people.

It is responsibility of scholars to search as accurate picture as possible of what happened.
In doing so, it is crucial that they give as many perspectives as possible.
We can put each perspective in the history textbook.That way, students can critically learn what the history is..
Do not use fake photos.Do not use fake numbers.Do not use fake testimonies.(That only benifits the deniers.)but at the same time, do not be too strict with evidences.
In court, it is a principle that you should give a benift of doubt to the defendant.but in historical writing of the war situation it is plausible to use the evidences which might not be admissable in the court for the victims, because unlike peace situations, there are few people who can accuse and record the war crimes accurately in war time. [2]

Japan should make reparations to Chinese individul victims.
Chinese victims who filed lawsuit were rejected by the Japanese courts because there is no law which enable victims to be cured. Japanese assemly need to conclude the new law.The law should be based on a principle of reciprocity.In other words, Chinese assembly should also conclude the law so that Japanese victims by Chinese terrorists can receive reparations from Chinese government.Japanese govenment, on the other hand, does not have to be worried about China's political tactics in which China use history to get what she want.
Besides,by doing these, any government should know war and war crimes cost a lot for both a victor and a loser

His site and blog is full of exciting arguments and statistics.You might want to visit.
And here is some controvercies over his theory.
And here is his opinion about Iraqi.
So, why are we fighting in Iraq and fostering democratic freedom there and elsewhere? The answer is to promote an end to war, and democide, and to minimize internal political violence. In other words, it is to foster global human security. Surely, this is worth fighting

I agree with the basic idea, but there are a lot of counries like iraq in the world.
Are we justified in attacking these countries in the way the U.S did,in the name of promoting democracy?
Was attacking Iraq not too hasty to excute.
Was promoting democracy the main reason to have attacked Iraq?
Wasn't he saying "When democracies do enter a war for reasons other than self-defense, politicians often find it necessary to deceive the public."?

The following what Gordn Brown, has to say.
I think the days of Britain having to apologise for our history are over. I think we should move forward. I think we should celebrate much of our past rather than apologise for it and we should talk, rightly so, about British valuesBBC

[2] I have read Higashinakano's the Nanking Massacre.(sekai syuppan inc.Tokyo 2005),His position belongs to so called denier school.In my view one of his problems is to use the strict criteria and narrow interpretation of the international law to find facts .The similar things can be said of "What really happened in Nanking" by Tanaka.However I suggest to reserve judgment until you read both sides, "massacre school","denier school".

Attitudes toward incidents similar to Nanjin massares---in case of the U.S

See also nogun ri massacre
I believe the U.S. is the most liberal country .And it is most developed country.How did she deal with the dark past. Some people say the U.S faced the past appropriately:But others disagree.

It was a case revolving around James Bacque’s Other Losses, another controversial book that caught the media attention in North America in the late 1980s to the early 1990s.In this book, Bacque contended that the Allies, the United States and France in particular, deliberately starved to death about 800,000 to one million German prisoners of war (POWs) in their custody immediately after World War II.

Few people will doubt the authenticity of the individual cases of atrocity detailed in John H.D. Rabe’s diary as quoted by Chang in her book. Likewise, Bacque’s critics did not deny the truthfulness of the stories narrated by eyewitnesses to the conditions of Allied POW camps in Germany. The stories of some good-willed people who tried to save victims are also true

both Chang and Bacque emphasized the number of victims to illustrate the magnitude of these atrocities.

Both narrated stories about the heroes amid the atrocities, producing an
effect of further highlighting the malicious character of the perpetrators. Finally, bothassailed the collective indifference to the incidents.

Despite these similarities, commentators, albeit of two totally different groups, approached these two works in different manners

From the beginning, critics of Bacque doubted his estimate of death toll and what he postulated as a motive behind the alleged mass killing. A reviewer of Other Losses raised the question of the “intrinsic impossibility that so vast an atrocity could so long have been utterly hidden.”Later,professional historians examined primary sources carefully and refuted almost every crucial conclusion reached by Bacque in Eisenhower and the German POWs. In contrast, except for some critical reviewers, many of those who reviewed Chang’s Rape of Nanking immediately after its publication accepted her contention at face value without careful scrutiny.

one cannot overlook the oddity, if not a double standard, in a
historiographical contrast. On the one hand, after careful scrutiny, the reviewers of
Bacque’s Other Losses rejected his thesis that the deliberate policy of starvation against German POWs resulted in a large number of fatalities matching the number of A-bomb victims. On the other hand, the reviewers of Chang’s Rape of Nanking either implicitly or explicitly embraced a similar contention regarding the perpetrators’ intent and death toll in Nanking before or without commensurate probe or investigation. One reason for this contrast is that whereas Bacque’s Other Losses was a monograph on an atrocity allegedly committed by the Allies--the United States in particular--Chang’s work recounted an atrocity committed by the Japanese military, America’s former enemy. But another factor may explain this contrast. Truly regrettably, it is a long-standing social problem in this country, namely racism(emphasis mine) and this is most likely another ingredient that made Chang’s book so popularlink

This link show the similar thesis.(I can not cite it because I noticed it was prohibited.)
In a nutshell, the arugement for atomic bombs that is, it was necessary to save lives, is essecially similar to the Japanese counterparts that argue Japanese did no wrongs during the war.

What do you think? For a non-American, it is obvious that the U,S. has problems too.But as I said somewhere, I am not saying two wrongs make right, but I am saying we can learn from the wrongs.We will examine it on the next thread.

Basque's statistics, arguments, and documentation were subjected to careful and detailed study by a conference of historians (including Germans) organized by Stephen Ambrose, the director of the Eisenhower Center at the University of New Orleans. Papers from the conference have been published6 and show that Basque misread, misinterpreted, or ignored the relevant documents and that his mortality statistics are simply impossible. However, the papers do show that some of the camps, particularly the transit camps that became known as the Rheinwiesenlager,7 were initially lethal, with thousands of German POWs dying, and that these deaths were the responsibility of the American government. While the final toll of the American transit camps was far from that alleged by Bacque, it still could have reached 56,000 dead (lines 232 and 233). Detailed statistical studies by the German Maschke Commission set up to determine the fate of German POWs arrived at a figure of 4,537 dead for the most deadly Rheinwiesenlager camps (line 229). Other estimates in this range are also available (lines 228, 230 to 231). As a result of all this, I ignore Bacque's estimates and consolidate the others as shown (line 237)STATISTICS OF DEMOCIDE

This account make the stark contrast with his treatment the massacre by Japan's "Savage" Military. I am not sure if he took the debate by historians about the number of victims in Nanjin Massacre this much seriously. and though I respect his job, I wonder why he did not use adjective "savage" to the US Military.

US-led forces kill several in Afghan raid

Tuesday, December 12, 2006; 2:59 AM

KHOST, Afghanistan (Reuters) - U.S.-led troops killed at least four people, including a teenage girl, in an operation in Afghanistan's southeastern province of Khost on Tuesday, the force and villagers said.

But there were conflicting accounts about who was killed in the pre-dawn raid in Dornami village in a province where the Taliban and their Islamic allies are highly active. PHOTOS

The week's events from around the world, captured in pictures.

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Residents say the U.S.-led force, backed by Afghan militias, broke into a house, drawing fire from the occupants who thought they were thieves. Four people were killed and some seven wounded -- all of them civilians, they said.

The U.S.-led coalition said in a statement the raid killed five people -- four suspected terrorists and a young girl.

The troops requested the surrender of those in the compound.

"The suspected terrorists refused to comply with verbal warnings and began firing," the statement said.

"Enemies of the Afghan government continue to place women and children in harm's way by conducting illegal activities within common living areas, placing entire families at risk," the statement said.

The U.S.-led coalition has about 8,000 troops under its command in Afghanistan, after overthrowing the Taliban's hard-line Islamist government in 2001. NATO leads about 32,000 soldiers in the country.

Thousands of civilians have been killed during fighting since the Taliban's ouster. Civilian deaths are a sensitive issue for the foreign forces and President Hamid Karzai's government, which largely relies on foreign funds and on foreign soldiers.washingtonpos

See also Germans attack united States
France denies role in Rwandan genocide魚拓

Attitudes toward Nanjin massacre---in case of Japan

see also superb post
What was Japan's reaction, has it been appropriate? Regretably it has not.
Japanese public exposure to the crimes of Nanking did not occur until the Tokyo trials, nearly a decade later, even then the story was not followed up and the issues soon disappeared from public consciousness. In Japan some right-wing researchers and nationalist critics later claimed that no massacre ever occurred; others insisted that the atrocities have been greatly exaggerated by Chinese political propaganda. Through four long decades of cold war, issues of war responsibility were covered up. Only since the mid-1980s have ordinary Japanese citizens gradually become aware that their country once fought a war of aggression symbolized by the Nanking massacre. Herbert P. Bix

The government of Japan has remained quite ambivalent about how it faces its wartime past, unlike the far more orthodox recognition of guilt and responsibility that Germany has expressed in both official and unofficial registers.

One of the most significant reasons for that ambivalence is
the deflection of the issues of guilt, responsibility, punishment, and reparations in the years immediately following the end of the war. That deflection is traceable to U.S. policy during the occupation and reconstruction of Japan (1945-52) and the emergence of the Cold War.
This came in spite of the U.S.’s role in leading the IMTFE. The long-term effect of the Tokyo trials was to punish a small number of military and civilian officials while allowing the Emperor himself as well as low-level officials, soldiers, and civilians at large—not to mention large scale structures such as institutions, legal codes, and ideology—to avoid scrutiny or self-scrutiny. The IMTFE was also easily interpretable as an instance of one-sided victor’s justice. To this day, therefore, there are a small number of Japanese in all walks of life who deny, downplay, or misrepresent the IMTFE as well as the whole issue of Japan’s role in the

And Japanese Rtightists regist.
An important subject for future study, one not explored in this book, is how Japanese conservatives and rightists, many in the Liberal Democratic Party, came to make a specialty of distorting the achievements of the Tokyo trial, just as they falsified Nanking, while progressives have struggled ever since to deepen understanding of both.Herbert P. Bix

However on the whole, there has been heated discussions.,
Unlike the debate in English, Japanese researchers have been debating – and truly debating – the incident for decades rather than only the past few years,David Askew

Takashi Yoshida's discussion of the Japanese historiography of the Nanjing massacre should serve to remind readers how erroneous is the broadbrush indictment of the Japanese people as "amnesia victims." Much of the most searching and unbiased research has emerged from Japanese historians and journalists like Yoshida. His chapter in this book is particularly helpful in unraveling the complex history of the "textbook controversy" in Japan. He is justifiably harsh in his judgment of Japanese revisionists who have sought to minimize the scale of Nanjing in order to preserve a "tidy" history, one which could evoke national pride. At the same time, however, Yoshida notes that the insularity of the revisionists has helped to motivate Japanese progressive historians to research the massacre in ever more careful

Japanese historiography and all the related debates and denial attempts that surround the Nanjing Massacre. Two main points stand out: firstly, the historiography produced by Japanese scholars is by far the most thorough, compelling, and reliable study material of the Nanjing Massacre. All specialists know that. It is unfortunate that this historiography remains largely ignored, even in Japan itself, but more evidently in the West (including by such authors as Iris Chang) and in China. Secondly, there are constant and systematic efforts made by various groups, mostly from the far right or nationalist groups, to deny the Nanjing Massacre ever occurred. These efforts represent the ripples of an underlying and deeper current among Japanese conservative politicians determined to whitewash Japanese responsibility and crimes during the war. These attempts sometimes extend beyond occasional 'blunders' by politicians into the larger public realm by way of journals and mangas. Takashi Yoshida observes that however massive the research-based scholarship on the Nanjing Massacre, it will never prevent the media from seizing and giving prominence to any controversial statement or publication by people from the 'revisionist' groups. It is and will always be the duty of historians to join in an endless battle as their opponents are not motivated by academic concerns but by ideological

After all, Japan is a country whre freedom of speech is protected by the constituion.You can not eliminate deniers in this society.And even deniers contributes to this debetes, and the truth. Without deniers, there has been no heated debates.And historians learn to deal with evidences more carefully.I see nothing wrong with deniers who argue pursuasively.
But Japanese government should have done better. We will examine what should be done on another thread.

I think he is talking about Ienaga saburo's lawsuit.









(参考文献『東京裁判』全三巻 朝日新聞法廷記者団著 東京裁判刊行会発行)





戦死(戦傷病死を含む)     約三万人

撃滅処断          約一万六千人



合計            約七万六千人正論