Saturday, March 31, 2007

Kaneko's guilt revealed

Japan PM war slavery denial uncovers old pain

TOKYO, Japan (AP) -- Yasuji Kaneko, 87, still remembers the screams of the countless women
he raped in China as a soldier in the Japanese imperial army in World War II.
Some were teenagers from Korea serving as sex slaves in military-run brothels. Others were
women in villages he and his comrades pillaged in eastern China.
"They cried out, but it didn't matter to us whether the women lived or died," Kaneko said in an interview
with The Associated Press at his Tokyo home. "We were the emperor's soldiers. Whether in military
brothels or in the villages, we raped without reluctance."March 3, 2007CNN com

He was really a nasty guy, wasn't he?

In the book called Emperor's army, on the part accusing 731 troop, he tesitified
he was ordered to spread cholera vibrio

In the site that accuses Nanjing massacre, he is quoted as saying in Nanjing massacre he set fire on the civilian houses.

In the site revealing comfort statoin, he testified he tranferred comfort women.

His evil acts is beyond description. He raped women in China, tranfered comfort women, spread the poison gas with 731 troop, set fire on civilian houses in Nanjing Massacre. How can he stay alive?
He was at the every place notorious for the Japanese atrocity. He is super evil----but some people are wondering how we can trust the story of such a man.

via enjoy Korea魚拓

Friday, March 30, 2007

Comfort women: confusion about Teshintai/Women Brig ate

There are a lot of confusion about Teshintai and comfort women system among Korean people. In 1944, the law was enacted to the effect unmarried women would be mobilized for the factory. (Married women were necessary for the maintainace of the house and familiy) Many Korean people seems to be confused about it.
But in Japan even people who accuse Japan fervently for comfort women know the difference. Here is an article by three representatives supporters, Half-moon, ethnic Korean who run the site criticizing Japan, Yoshimi, a representative historian who support for comfort women, Chida, who started campaign for comfort women in Japan.
I think the confusion in Korea between Women Brigade and comfort women is a relic of Japanese colonialism.
In Korea, the perspective that teishintai is comfort women was held strongly from the time mobilization law in 1944 was enacted. This law was named "virgin contribution "after the contribution of the farm products, and hardware. And "virgin" mean "unmarried women."
This virgin contribution put women in panic. The rumor spread that unmarried women would be made comfort women in Korea. Korea governor-general's office also confirmed this rumor. The fact is mentioned in a document of the Department of the Interior under the jurisdiction of a governor-general's office as follows (yoshimi "jugun ianfu page 101)

Some people mistakenly think that the patriotic work corp is equally mobilisation . And some rejected it, and escaped, and some started the violence. Not only that, there is an absurd rumor that women would be made comfort women. Coupled with this malice rumor, it will be harder to acquire the work force.
(concering the revision of staff in the government-general's office 27 June 1944)

In Korea people thought up many ways to to avoid this "virgin contribution;Wealthy family had their daughter escape to the rural area, and some were encouraged to marry.
But there were few young men because young men were mobilized, so the parents tried hard to find the young man who escaped from mobilization and forced their daughter to marry. As such, the marriage was doomed to fail. A sick man or not, having some problem with him or not, they had to marry, because they thought that was much better than "virgin contribution". This unhappy marriage brought about many divorces. In Korean where confucianism's influence is strong, where "when a woman is married, she must obey her husband", there must have been overwhelming reason for them to divorce.
it is said that from 8000 to 12000 tragic divorces were reported after the liberation.
This large number of divorces tell how firmly Korean confusingly believed that Teishintai is comfort women.
And this misunderstanding remained after the liberation. It is evidenced in the followin Soeul newpaper(chida, jugun iannfu)....







     昭和19年3月18日 閣議決定
 (1) 本要綱中基本事項ニ就テハ国家総動員法第五条ニ基ク勅令ヲ制定スルモノトス
 (2) 協力命令ヲ肯ンゼザル者ニ対シテハ必要ニ依リ国家総動員法第六条ニ基ク就業命令ヲ発シ得ルモノトスルコト


第一条 勤労常時要員トシテノ女子(学徒勤労令ノ適用ヲ受クベキ者ヲ除ク)ノ隊組織(以下女子挺身隊ト称ス)ニ依ル勤労協力ニ関スル命令ニシテ国家総動員法第五条ノ規定ニ基クモノ並ニ当該命令ニ依ル勤労協力ヲ為スベキ者及女子挺身隊ニ依ル従業ヲ為ス者ノ雇入、使用、就職、従業又ハ給与其ノ他ノ従業条件ニ関スル命令ニシテ同法第六条ノ規定ニ基クモノニ関シテハ本令ノ定ムル所ニ依ル

第ニ条 国家総動員法第五条ノ規定ニ依ル命令ニ依リ女子ガ女子挺身隊ニ依リ為ス勤労協力(以下挺身勤労ト称ス)ハ国、地方公共団体又ハ厚生大臣若ハ地方長官(東京都ニ在リテハ警視総監以下同ジ)ノ指定スル者ノ行フ命令ヲ以テ定ムル総動員業務ニ付之ヲ為サシムルモノトス

第三条 挺身勤労ヲ為スベキ者(以下隊員ト称ス)ハ国民職業能力申告令ニ依ル国民登録者タル女子トス
2 前項該当者以外ノ女子ハ志願ヲ為シタル場合ニ限リ隊員ト為スコトヲ得ルモノトス

第四条 引続キ挺身勤労ヲ為サシムル期間ハ特別ノ事情アル場合ヲ除クノ外概ネ一年トス
2 隊員ヲシテ引続キ一年ヲ超エ挺身勤労ヲ為サシムル場合ニ於テハ隊員ノ同意アルコトヲ要ス

第五条 挺身勤労ヲ受ケントスル者ハ命令ノ定ムル所ニ依リ地方長官ニ之ヲ請求又ハ申請スベシ

第六条 地方長官前条ノ規定ニ依ル請求又ハ申請アリタル場合ニ於テ女子挺身隊ヲ出動セシムル必要アリト認ムルトキハ命令ノ定ムル所ニ依リ市町村長(市町村長ニ準ズベキモノヲ含ミ東京都ノ区ノ存スル区域並ニ京都市、大阪市、名古屋市、横浜市及神戸市ニ在リテハ区長トス以下同ジ)其ノ他ノ団体ノ長又ハ学校長ニ対シ隊員ト為ルベキ者ヲ選抜スベキコトヲ命ズルモノトス

第七条 前条ノ命令ヲ受ケタル者ハ本人ノ年齢、身体ノ状態、家庭ノ状況等ヲ斟酌シ隊員ト為ルベキ者ヲ選抜シ之ヲ地方長官ニ報告スベシ

第八条 地方長官ハ前条ノ規定ニ依ル報告アリタル者ノ中ヨリ隊員ヲ決定シ本人ニ其ノ旨ヲ挺身勤労令書ニ依リ通知シ挺身勤労ニ関シ必要ナル事項ヲ指示スルモノトス

第九条 前条ノ規定ニ依ル通知ヲ受ケタル者ハ同条ノ規定ニ依ル指示ニ従ヒ挺身勤労ヲ為スベシ

第十条 挺身勤労ヲ為ス場合ノ女子挺身隊ノ組織及運営並ニ其ノ隊員ノ規律ニ関シ必要ナル事項ハ命令ヲ以テ之ヲ定ム

第十一条 地方長官ハ命令ノ定ムル所ニ依リ特別ノ事情アル場合ニ於テハ挺身勤労ノ全部又ハ一部ノ停止ニ関シ必要ナル措置ヲ為スコトヲ得

第十二条 挺身勤労ニ要スル経費ハ命令ノ定ムル所ニ依リ特別ノ事情アル場合ヲ除クノ外其ノ挺身勤労ヲ受クル者之ヲ負担スルモノトス

第十三条 厚生大臣(軍需省所管企業ニ於ケル勤労管理及給与ニ関スル事項ニ付テハ軍需大臣)又ハ地方長官必要アリト認ムルトキハ国家総動員法第六条ノ規定ニ基キ挺身勤労ヲ受クル事業主ニ対シ隊員ノ使用又ハ給与其ノ他ノ従業条件ニ関シ必要ナル命令ヲ為スコトヲ得
2 隊員ガ業務上負傷シ、疾病ニ罹リ又ハ死亡シタル場合ニ於ケル本人又ハ其ノ遣族ノ扶助ニ関シ必要ナル事項ハ命令ヲ以テ之ヲ定ム

第十四条 左ノ各号ノ一ニ該当スル者ハ隊員ト為サザルモノトス但シ隊員ニシテ第一号又ハ第二号ニ該当スルニ至リタルモノハ此ノ限ニ在ラズ
 一 陸海軍軍属
 二 陸軍大臣若ハ海軍大臣ノ所管ニ属スル官衙(部隊及学校ヲ含ム)又ハ厚生大臣ノ指定スル工場、事業場其ノ他ノ場所ニ於テ軍事上必要ナル総動員業務ニ従事スル者
 三 法令ニ依リ拘禁中ノ者

第十五条 左ノ各号ノ一ニ該当スル者ハ志願ニ依ル場合ヲ除クノ外隊員ト為サザルモノトス
 一 厚生大臣ノ指定スル総動員業務ニ従事スル者
 二 家庭生活ノ根軸タル者
 三 其ノ他厚生大臣ノ指定スル者

第十六条 厚生大臣又ハ地方長官ハ命令ノ定ムル所ニ依リ挺身勤労ニ関シ市町村長其ノ他ノ団体ノ長若ハ学校長又ハ隊員若ハ挺身勤労ヲ受クル事業主ヲ監督ス

第十七条 地方長官必要アリト認ムル場合ニ於テハ国家総動員法第六条ノ規定ニ基キ挺身勤労ヲ為サザル者ニ対シ第五条ノ規定ニ依ル請求又ハ申請ニ係ル工場、事業場其ノ他ノ場所ニ就職スルコトヲ命ズルコトヲ得
2 前項ノ工場、事業場其ノ他ノ場所ノ事業主ハ国家総動員法第六条ノ規定ニ基キ同項ノ規定ニ依ル命令ヲ受ケタル者ヨリ就職申出ヲ受ケタルトキハ之ヲ雇入ルルコトヲ要ス
3 厚生大臣(軍需省所管企業ニ於ケル勤労管理及給与ニ関スル事項ニ付テハ軍需大臣)又ハ地方長官必要アリト認ムルトキハ国家総動員法第六条ノ規定ニ基キ第一項ノ規定ニ依ル命令ヲ受ケタル者又ハ前項ノ事業主ニ対シ第一項ノ規定ニ依ル命令ヲ受ケタル者ノ使用、従業又ハ給与其ノ他ノ従業条件ニ関シ必要ナル命令ヲ為スコトヲ得
4 第十三条第二項ノ規定ハ第一項ノ規定ニ依ル命令ヲ受ケタル者又ハ其ノ遺族ノ扶助ニ之ヲ準用ス

第十八条 第十三条ノ規定ハ地方長官又ハ国民勤労動員署長ノ為ス指導又ハ勧奨ニ基キ女子ガ女子挺身隊ニ依リ第二条ノ規定ニ依ル総動員業務ニ付工場、事業場其ノ他ノ場所ニ於テ従業スル場合ニ之ヲ準用ス

第十九条 地方長官必要アリト認ムルトキハ本令ニ依ル其ノ事務ノ一部ヲ国民勤労動員署長ヲシテ分掌セシムルコトヲ得

第二十条 第十三条(第十七条第四項及第十八条ニ於テ準用スル場合ヲ含ム)、第十六条並ニ第十七条第二項及第三項ノ規定ハ事業主タル国及都道府県ニ之ヲ適用セズ

第二十一条 本令中厚生大臣トアルハ朝鮮ニ在リテハ朝鮮総督、台湾ニ在リテハ台湾総督トシ地方長官トアルハ朝鮮ニ在リテハ道知事、台湾ニ在リテハ州知事又ハ庁長トシ市町村長トアルハ朝鮮ニ在リテハ府尹(京城府ニ在リテハ区長)又ハ邑面長、台湾ニ在リテハ市長又ハ郡守(澎湖庁ニ在リテハ庁長)トシ国民勤労動員署長トアルハ朝鮮ニ在リテハ府尹、郡守又ハ島司、台湾ニ在リテハ市長又ハ郡守(澎湖庁ニ在リテハ庁長)トシ都道府県トアルハ朝鮮ニ在リテハ道、台湾ニ在リテハ州又ハ庁トス

第二十二条 挺身勤労ニハ国民勤労報国協力令ハ之ヲ適用セズ

第二十三条 本令ニ規定スルモノノ外挺身勤労ニ関シ必要ナル事項ハ命令ヲ以テ之ヲ定ム

  附 則




Yen loan

Friday March 30, 9:35 PM
India tops other nations as recipient of Japan's FY 2006 yen loans
(Kyodo) _ Japan provided India a total of 184.8 billion yen in credit in fiscal 2006, making India the biggest recipient of Japanese official development assistance in the form of low-interest loans, the Foreign Ministry said Friday.

India was followed by Indonesia, Vietnam and Iraq, as large recipients of yen loans on a contract basis in fiscal 2006 ending Saturday.kyodo

Interesting, in that it shows the strategy of Japan.

Japan needs more sense of humor

The Japanese would certainly benefit in international relations if they could relax a bit more, take life less seriously and laugh at themselves as the writer of the letter in the British newspaper quoted above suggested. Abe in particular should take note!The japan times

via 「Nishitatsu1234の帝国」

Sure, sure,
New York Times..... ahahaha.
Washinton Post......ahahahaha.
Korea...... Ahahahaha.

what a coincidence!

Fake Kidnappings Confound Police

By Kim Tong-hyung
Staff Reporter

Amid the soaring unemployment rate and widening gulf between rich and poor, police have their hands full in dealing with all sorts of crimes, big and small, committed by those in desperate need of money.

A particularly annoying trend for law enforcement officials is the growing number of people who are faking their own kidnappings for ransom. As most of the victims of the spoof kidnappings are the suspects' own family members, police are complaining that there is little legal ground for them to arrest the perpetrators.

Last Sunday, detectives at the Socho Police Station in southern Seoul received a call from a young woman who claimed that her father, a 43-year-old Chung, had been kidnapped by his creditors for failing to pay off 58 million won in debts.

More than 2,000 police officers were deployed around Chung's house to search for his whereabouts. However, the search was called off a day later when it was revealed that the abduction was a hoax, a scam organized by Chung himself.Korea times

At the very time the testimony by comfort women is in question.

via ROK Drop

Korean Economic Research Institute speaks about comfort women

See also A Korean historian speaks about comfort women
Korean professor talks about comfort women
A Korean professor says Korea is also responsible

또 일제는 조선인의 노동력을 수탈하였다고 합니다. 1940년대의 전시기(戰時期)에 약 650만 명의 조선인을 전선으로 공장으로 탄광으로 강제 연행하였으며, 끌고 가서는 임금을 주지 않고 노예와 같이 부려먹었다는 것입니다. 그 가운데 조선의 처녀들이 있었습니다. 정신대(挺身隊)라는 명목으로 조선의 처녀들을 동원하여 일본군의 위안부로 삼았는데, 그 수가 수십 만에 이른다고 교과서는 기술하고 있습니다.

그런데 이런 이야기들은 모두 사실이 아닙니다. 깜짝 놀랄 분들이 많으시겠지만, 거두절미하고 말한다면 이런 이야기들은 모두 교과서를 쓴 역사학자들이 지어낸 이야기입니다. 해방 이후의 역사 교과서를 검토해 보면 1960년대까지는 이러한 이야기가 없었습니다. 그러다가 1970년대에 들어와, 특히 1974년 이후 국정교과서 체제로 넘어가면서, 위와 같이 난폭한 서술들이 교과서에 등장하기 시작하였습니다. 이에 대해 여기서 더 이상 자세히 설명할 겨를이 없습니다만, 궁금하신 분은 저의 이전 논문을 참조하시기 바랍니다.(이영훈, 「국사 교과서에 그려진 일제의 수탈상과 그 신화성」, 『시대정신』28, 2005)

In addtion, our national history textbook says that Japanese imperialist exploited Korean labor force;In 1940's during war period, Koreans were taken to factories and mines, and was forced to work like slaves without paying them salary, among them were Koren women taken away in the name of Women's Brigate and they were made comfort women. and the number of the women reaches as much as several hundreds of thousands women, so decribe the textbook.
However, these stories are not facts. Many of you might be surprised but to make a long stroy short, these are stories made up hisotrians who wrote the textbook. Until 1960's there was no such a story. Entering into 70's, especially after the national textbook starting to emerge, the rough story like the above began to appear. I have not time to spend on it here, but if you are interested in the detail, please refer to the article " the myth of exploitationi by Japanese Imperialism" and "Zeit Geist"
....Yi yonfun? professor of Soel University)

via 木村幽閉記

see also link
via 日韓基本史料

Name 관리자

Subject (3) 식민지수탈론 vs 식민지근대화론

(3) 식민지수탈론 vs 식민지근대화론
<해방전후사 재인식> 특강 (3)
일본의 조선 동화정책이 낳은 조선 근대화
[이영훈 / 2006-06-21 12:08]

故 정주영 회장(좌) 故 이병철 회장(우)

자유주의에 기초한 새로운 역사인식과 민족주의에 기초한 낡은 역사인식은 1905-1945년간 일제하의 식민지기를 어떻게 이해할 것인가에서부터 크게 갈리고 있습니다. 현재 국사학계에서 주류를 점하고 있는 민족주의 역사인식은 일제가 대한제국의 국권을 침탈하고 조선의 토지와 식량과 자원과 노동력을 수탈함으로써 우리 민족의 생존권을 부정하고 우리 민족의 정상적인 발전의 길을 왜곡하였다고 주장하고 있습니다.

이를 가리켜 흔히 ‘식민지수탈론’이라고 합니다. 여기에는 역사를 계급적인 관점에서 착취관계로 인식하는 맑스주의적 역사학과 경제학이 큰 영향을 미쳤습니다. 가령 한국에서 근대적인 역사학과 경제학은 1930년대부터 시작했다고 말할 수 있는데, 그 초창기의 역사학자와 경제학자를 보면 대개 유물사관(唯物史觀)에 기초한 맑스주의자인 경우가 많았습니다.

수탈론을 좀더 구체적으로 소개하면 다음과 같습니다. 일제는 토지조사사업(1910-1918)을 실시함에 있어서 농민들로 하여금 소유 농지를 신고하게 하였습니다. 그런데 신고가 무엇인지 알지 못하는 농민들 가운데 신고 기한을 놓친 사람이 많았습니다. 그래서 물경 전국 농지의 4할이나 되는 많은 토지가 총독부의 소유지로 수탈되었으며, 이 토지는 일본에서 온 이민농민이나 동양척식주식회사와 같은 회사에 헐값으로 넘겨졌다는 것입니다. 지난 40년간 대한민국의 국사 교과서는 학생들에게 그렇게 가르쳐왔습니다.

또 국사 교과서에는 일제가 생산된 쌀의 절반을 빼앗아 일본으로 실어 날랐다고 되어 있습니다. 농사를 다 짓고 나면 일본 경찰과 헌병이 총칼을 들이대고 절반을 빼앗아간 것처럼, 그렇게 직접 쓰고 있지 않습니다만, 그렇게 해석될 수 있는 문맥으로 학생들을 가르쳐 왔습니다. 또 일제는 조선인의 노동력을 수탈하였다고 합니다. 1940년대의 전시기(戰時期)에 약 650만 명의 조선인을 전선으로 공장으로 탄광으로 강제 연행하였으며, 끌고 가서는 임금을 주지 않고 노예와 같이 부려먹었다는 것입니다. 그 가운데 조선의 처녀들이 있었습니다. 정신대(挺身隊)라는 명목으로 조선의 처녀들을 동원하여 일본군의 위안부로 삼았는데, 그 수가 수십 만에 이른다고 교과서는 기술하고 있습니다.

그런데 이런 이야기들은 모두 사실이 아닙니다. 깜짝 놀랄 분들이 많으시겠지만, 거두절미하고 말한다면 이런 이야기들은 모두 교과서를 쓴 역사학자들이 지어낸 이야기입니다. 해방 이후의 역사 교과서를 검토해 보면 1960년대까지는 이러한 이야기가 없었습니다. 그러다가 1970년대에 들어와, 특히 1974년 이후 국정교과서 체제로 넘어가면서, 위와 같이 난폭한 서술들이 교과서에 등장하기 시작하였습니다. 이에 대해 여기서 더 이상 자세히 설명할 겨를이 없습니다만, 궁금하신 분은 저의 이전 논문을 참조하시기 바랍니다.(이영훈, 「국사 교과서에 그려진 일제의 수탈상과 그 신화성」, 『시대정신』28, 2005)

앞서 소개하였듯이 수탈론은 1930년대부터 있었습니다. 그런데 그 때의 수탈은 일종의 이론적인 것으로서 맑스주의적 수탈이었습니다. 그런데 1970년대부터의 수탈은 아무런 대가를 지불하지 않고 그냥 폭력적으로 뺏아가는 문자 그대로 벌거벗은 약탈이라고 할 수 있습니다. 그렇지만 그것은 사실이 아닙니다. 그러한 벌거벗은 약탈로서 수탈론이 1970년대부터 교과서에 등장한 것은 한국의 역사학계가 아직 일제하의 식민지기를 과학적으로 인식할 능력과 자세가 부족함을 의미하고 있습니다.

정당한 대가를 지불하지 않고 토지와 쌀을 빼앗가면 그 결과가 어떻게 되겠습니까. 마치 풍선에서 바람이 빠져나가듯이 경제는 위축될 수밖에 없습니다. 이는 너무나 당연한 사실이어서 굳이 증명할 수고조차 필요 없을 정도로 명백한 사실입니다. 그에 따라 사람들은 점점 가난해집니다. 인구는 줄게 되지요.

그런데 사실은 어떠하였습니까. 정반대였습니다. 1910년의 조선인 인구는 대략 1600-1700만 정도였습니다. 1940년에는 2400만이었습니다. 일본과 만주로 나간 사람을 합하면 2600만 정도였습니다. 불과 30년의 짧은 기간에 50% 이상 인구가 증대하였는데, 이러한 인구증가 현상은 경제가 찌그러지고 있었다면 상상할 수 없는 일이지요.

그 밖에 경제사 연구자들의 정밀한 통계적 추정에 의하면, 식민지기 1910-1940년간에 걸쳐 한반도의 총소득은 연평균 3.7%의 속도로 지속적으로 성장하였습니다. 그 정도는 당시 세계적으로 높은 수준이었습니다. 20세기 전반 세계자본주의는 정체와 위기의 시대였습니다. 그래서 선진국이라 해도 대개 2% 전후의 낮은 성장률을 보였습니다. 그런데 일본만이 유독 3-4%의 높은 성장률을 보였는데, 우리 한반도가 일본의 영토로 편입되어 있었던 연고로 일본 본토와 마찬가지로 그 정도의 경제성장률을 보였던 것입니다.

여러분은 벌써 저의 이야기에 불쾌감과 짜증을 느낄지 모릅니다. 그렇지만 냉정하게 생각해 보십시오. 가령 대한민국이란 나라가 있는데 전라도는 연평균 4% 성장하고 경상도는 연평균 -4%로 후퇴하는 일이 있을 수 없지요. 마찬가지 원리입니다. 한반도는 일본제국의 한 부분으로서 일제의 영토가 되고 말았습니다. 한 영토가 된 것을 두고 역사학자들이 식민지라고 이야기하고 있을 따름입니다. 바로 그 이유로 일본이 경제성장한 것과 꼭 같은 정도로 한반도에서도 경제성장이 있게 된 것입니다.

어떻게 해서 그렇게 되었을까요. 일본으로 쌀을 실어 날랐던 것이 아니라 일본으로 쌀을 수출하였기 때문입니다. 당시에는 수출이 아니라 ‘이출’(移出)이라 하였습니다. 어쨌든 일본의 쌀값이 조선보다 높아서 시장원리에 따라 일본으로 수출된 것이지요. 그 결과 수출한 농민이나 지주에게는 수출소득이 발생하게 됩니다. 국내에서 쌀을 처분했을 때보다 더 많은 소득이 발생하지요. 그러면 경제가 성장하는 것입니다. 그 수출대금으로 일본에서 면제품과 같은 공산품도 수입하고, 만주로부터 모자라는 식량도 사들이고, 은행과 회사에 투자도 하고, 공장도 짓고 하는 것입니다.

이러한 경제적 변화를 제대로 알기 위해 우리는 일제가 한반도 조선을 식민지로 지배한 목적이나 방식부터 올바로 알 필요가 있습니다. 일제가 한반도를 식민지로 지배한 기본 목적은 이른바 ‘영구병합’이었습니다. 일제가 남긴 통치사료를 보면 ‘영구병합’이란 말이 지겨울 정도로 자주 나옵니다. 영구히 일본의 영토로 삼겠다는 것이지요. 일본사람들은 여기에 한 20, 30년간 살다가 돌아갈려고 온 것이 결코 아닙니다. 영구히 살려고 왔습니다. 이 점을 똑바로 응시할 필요가 있습니다.

‘영구병합’의 목적을 달성하기 위해서는 어떻게 해야겠습니까. 무엇보다 조선의 사회와 경제를 일본과 같은 것으로 동화시킬 필요가 있습니다. 그런 목적에서 일제는 자기 나라의 법과 제도를 식민지 조선에 이식하였습니다. 그래야 일본인들이 조선으로 넘어와서 자기 나라처럼 불편없이 편안하게 살 것 아닙니까. 조선인들에 대해서는 그 문화와 정신을 빼앗아 일본인으로 만들어야 영구히 병합할 수 있습니다. 그렇기 하기 위해 조선의 문화와 정신을 그대로 두어서는 안되지요. 새로운 문화와 정신을 도입해서 조선인을 일본인으로 바꿀 필요가 있었습니다. 그럴 목적에서 일제는 근대적인 법과 제도를 조선에 이식하였던 것입니다.

그 대표적인 것이 1912년에 발포된 조선민사령(朝鮮民事令)입니다. 이때 시행된 일본의 민법은 지금도 대한민국의 민법으로 이어지고 있습니다. 두 법을 놓고 보면 당초의 표현이 순서까지도 변하지 않고 있는 것이 많습니다. 그런데 근대적인 민법의 핵심 원리는 무엇입니까. 그에 대해 민법학자들은 ‘사적(私的) 자유의 원칙’을 이야기합니다. 좀더 구체적으로 설명하면 인간은 국가나 다른 사람에게 구속되지 않은 자유로운 존재로서 그 사회생활과 경제생활은 자신의 자유로운 의사에 따른다는 것입니다. 이는 재산권제도와 관련하여 첫째 ‘소유권 절대의 원칙’으로 나타납니다. 소유권은 절대적으로 불가침이며, 국가도 이를 임의적으로 침해하거나 제한할 수 없다는 것입니다.

둘째는 ‘계약자유의 원칙’입니다. 이는 재산권을 양도하거나 처분함에 있어서 소유자의 자유의사에 기초한 계약만이 법적으로 유효하다는 것입니다. 앞서도 지적하였습니다만, 오늘날 대한민국의 국민들이 향유하고 있는 재산권제도는 바로 여기에서 출발하고 있습니다. 일제는 조선의 사회와 경제를 통합하는 정치원리에서 민주주의와 자유주의를 도입하지는 않았습니다. 일본 자신이 자유민주주의를 아직 몰랐다고 할 수 있습니다. 그들은 가족주의적이며 전체주의적인 정치원리를 천황제의 형태로 발달시켰습니다.

일본이 자유민주주의의 정치원리를 이해하고 실천하는 것은 미국에 의해 천황제 군국주의가 해체된 1945년 이후부터입니다. 그렇지만 일제는 천황제라는 정치체제 하에서 사회생활과 경제생활의 원리로서 근대적인 민법을 서유럽에서 도입하여 자기식으로 정착시켰습니다. 그래서 크게 보아 명치유신(明治維新) 이후의 일본을 근대사회라고 부르지요. 그 서유럽 기원의 근대의 요소가 식민지기에 조선에 이식된 것입니다. 바로 식민지 조선을 영구히 일본 제국의 영토로 편입하고 병합하고 나아가 동화시킬 목적에서였습니다.

경제적인 측면의 동화정책에 대해 좀더 설명하겠습니다. 근대적인 민법과 상법이 이식된 식민지 조선은 결국 일본과 하나의 시장으로 통합되었습니다. 1920년까지 모든 관세가 폐지되었습니다. 자본과 상품이 오고가는 데 장애가 없어졌습니다. 그에 따라 두 지역간의 무역이 크게 발전하였습니다. 무역이 발달하면 어떻게 됩니까. 여러분도 잘 아시다시피 1960년대 이후 한국경제는 수출 무역을 주도로 고도성장을 하였습니다. 마찬가지입니다. 무역이 늘면 경제는 성장을 하게 됩니다.

경제란 가계와 기업 간의 재화와 노동력과 소득의 흐름이지요. 여기다 수출과 수입이 더해지면 순환의 규모가 커지게 되지요. 경제성장이 지속되고 일인당 소득수준도 증가합니다. 그 과정에서 일본으로부터 자본이 들어와서 조선의 농토를 개간하고 공장을 지었습니다. 그렇게 일본인이 주체가 된 경제성장이었습니다. 그렇게 자꾸 자본이 들어와서 경제성장이 지속되면 결국 어떻게 됩니까? 조선의 토지와 지하자원과 공업시설은 점점 일본인의 소유가 됩니다. 바로 이런 것이 경제학적으로 말해 진정한 의미의 식민지적 수탈이지요.

빼앗아 간 것이 아니라 투자를 하여 한반도의 경제적 자원을 일본인의 소유로 만들어 가는 것입니다. 바로 그 점에서 영구병합과 동화정책에 따른 실질적인 수탈의 무서운 결과를 보게 됩니다. 다시 말합니다만 사기와 폭력으로 인민의 재산을 빼앗는 것은 고대의 약탈국가나 중세의 정복국가들이 하는 짓입니다. 일제는 그러한 야만의 국가가 아니었습니다. 그들은 근대사회였고 근대국가였습니다. 그들은 한반도를 영구히 일본 영토로 편입하고자 하였으며, 그 목적으로 투자를 하였던 것입니다.

역설적으로 들릴지 모르겠습니다만, 그러한 식민지적 수탈의 결과로 조선의 사회와 경제도 근대화하기 시작했습니다. 일본인들이 공장을 짓고 농장을 세우면 조선인들이 노동자로 또 소작농으로 고용됩니다. 그에 따라 조선인의 소득이 증가하기 시작합니다. 뿐만 아니라 조선인 가운데서도 일본인을 본받아서 공장을 짓고 기업가로 성장하는 계층이 발생합니다. 앞서 근대 민법의 기본 정신을 말했습니다. 사적 자유의 원칙이지요. 조선인에게도 그러한 사적 자유의 원칙이 적용됩니다. 그래야 동화니까요.

그런데 전체 인구의 2-3%에 불과한 일본인이 조선의 모든 토지와 자원을 다 소유할 수 있습니까? 절대적으로는 여전히 조선인 소유의 재산이 많았습니다. 그리하여 조선인 자산가 가운데 일본인에게 배우고 또 일본에 유학하여 상급학교를 졸업한 근대적인 인간집단이 생겨나는 것입니다. 오늘날의 삼성그룹과 현대그룹을 창업한 이병철 선생과 정주영 선생도 모두 식민지기에 기업을 일으킨 사람들입니다.

1939년 말이 되면 그렇게 조선인으로서 공장을 경영하고 있는 사람의 수가 일본인보다 많게 4천 명을 넘게 됩니다. 근대화의 주역은 어디까지나 일본인이었지만, 다수의 조선인들도 거기에 슬슬 참가하기 시작한 것이지요. 근대로부터 차별당하면서 근대를 학습하고 근대를 실천하기 시작한 것지요. 그렇게 생겨난 근대적인 인적자본을 토대로 하여 나중에 일제가 이 땅에서 물러갔을 때 이 땅에 우리 힘으로 근대경제와 근대사회와 근대국가를 건설할 수 있었던 것입니다.

인간의 이성으로 역사의 우연을 다 알 수는 없습니다. 일제가 영구병합하고자 동화정책을 펼친 결과가 그렇게 될 줄이야 누가 알았겠습니까. 그런 것을 두고 역사의 간지(奸智)라 하는지 모르겠습니다. 그렇게 일제가 조선을 식민지로 지배한 역사의 의의를 근대적인 법과 제도의 이식을 통한 조선의 근대화에서 찾는 학설을 가리켜 ‘식민지근대화론’이라 합니다.

지금 방송을 하고 있는 저와 같이 주로 경제사를 연구하는 사람들이 그런 주장을 하기 시작하였는데, 어느덧 알게 모르게 저희들을 비판하는 사람들이 그러한 이름을 붙여주더군요. ‘식민지근대화론’에 관해, 곧 식민지기에 있었던 경제적 변화에 대해, 보다 자세하게 알고 싶은 분은 『해방전후사의 재인식』1권에 실린 김낙년의「식민지 시기의 공업화 재론」과 주익종의「식민지 시기의 생활수준」이란 두 논문을 참조하시길 바랍니다. 저의 성급한 설명보다 훨씬 자세하고 유익한 설명을 거기서 들을 수 있습니다.

이영훈 (서울대 교수, 『해방전후사의 재인식』 공동편집자)

*이영훈 교수의 <해방전후사의 재인식 특강>은 EBS 라디오 홈페이지(다시듣기)에서 들을 수 있습니다.

DATE: 2006.08.03 -

< 解放戦後史 再認識> 特講 (3)
日本の 朝鮮 同化政策が 生んだ 朝鮮 近代化
[ イ・ヨンフン / 2006-06-21 12:08]

故 鄭周永 会長( 左) 故 イ・ビョンチョル 会長( 右)

自由主義に 基礎した 新しい 歴史認識と 民族主義に 基礎した 古い 歴史認識は 1905-1945 年間 日帝下の 殖民知己を どうに 理解する ゴッインがから 大きく 変わって あります. 現在 国史学界で 主類を 占めて ある 民族主義 歴史認識は 日製が 大韓帝国の 国権を 侵奪して 朝鮮の 土地と 食糧と 資源と 労動力を 収奪することで 私たち 民族の 生存権を 不正で 私たち 民族の 正常な 発展の 汲む 歪曲したと 主張して あります.

これを 示して よく ‘植民地収奪では’と します. ここには 歴史を 階級的な 観点で 搾取関係で 認識する マックスズウィゾック 史学と 経済学が 大きい 影響を 及びました. 加令 韓国で 近代的な 史学と 経済学は 1930 年代から 始めたと 言う 数 あるのに, 彼 創始期の 歴史学者と エコノミストを 見れば 大概 唯物史観( 唯物史観) に 基礎した マックスズウィザである 場合が 多かったです.

収奪論を もうちょっと 具体的に 紹介すれば 次と ようです. 日製は 土地調査事業(1910-1918) を 実施するに あって 農民たちで とって 所有 農地を 届けるように しました. ところが 新高価 何か 分かるの できない 農民たち 中 申告 期限を 逃した 人が 多かったです. そのため ムルギョング 全国 農地の 4 割や なる 多い 土地が 総督府の 所有地で 収奪されたし, これ 土地は 日本で 来た 移民農民や 東洋拓殖株式会社と ような 会社に 捨値で 越されたという のです. 去る 40 年間 大韓民国の 国史 教科書は 学生たちに そうに 教えて来ました.

また 国史 教科書には 日製が 生産された 米の 半分を 奪って 日本で 失語 運んだと なって あります. 農業を だ 作って 出れば 日本 警察と 憲兵が 銃刀を 突き付けて 半分を 奪った ように, そうに 直接 使って あるの ないですが, そうに 解釈される 数 ある 文脈で 学生たちを 教えて 来ました. また 日製は 朝鮮人の 労動力を 収奪したと します. 1940 年代の 展示期( 戦時期) に 薬 650 万 名医 朝鮮人を 電線で 工場で 炭鉱で 強制 連行したし, ひいて 行っては 賃金を 主旨 なくて 奴隷と 一緒に こき使ったという のです. 彼 中 朝鮮の 娘たちが ありました. 従軍慰安婦( 挺身隊) という 名目で 朝鮮の 娘たちを 動員して 日本軍の 慰安婦で したが, 彼 数価 数十 万に 早いと 教科書は 記述して あります.

ところが こういう 話は 皆 事実が いいえ. びっくり 驚く 方々が 多いが, 要点のみを述べることして 言ったら こういう 話は 皆 教科書を 使った 歴史学者たちが 作り出した 話です. 解放 以後の 歴史 教科書を 検討して 見れば 1960 年代までは このような 話が なかったです. そうしてから 1970 年代に 入って来て, 特に 1974 年 以後 国定教科書 体制で 移りながら, 上と 一緒に 荒っぽい 敍述たちが 教科書に 登場すること 始めました. これに 大海 ここで もっと 以上 詳らかに 説明する 暇が ないですが, 知りたい 分は 底意 以前 論文を 参照すること 望みます.( イ・ヨンフン, 「国史 教科書に 描かれた 日製の 収奪上と 彼 神話性」, 『時代精神』28, 2005)

先に進んで 紹介したように 収奪論は 1930 年代から ありました. ところが 彼 時の 収奪は 一種の 理論的な こととして マックスズウィゾック 収奪でした. ところが 1970 年代からの 収奪は 何らの 対価を 支払うの なくて そのまま 暴力的に ペッアがは 文字 そのまま 裸になった 掠奪だと 割 数 あります. そうだが それは 事実が いいえ. そういう 裸になった 掠奪として 収奪論が 1970 年代から 教科書に 登場した のは 韓国の 歴史学界が まだ 日帝下の 殖民知己を 科学的に 認識する 能力と 姿勢が 不足さを 意味して あります.

正当な 対価を 支払うの なくて 土地と 米を ペアッがなら 彼 結果が どうに なりますか. まるで 風船で 望むことが 抜けるように 経済は 萎縮する 数しか ないです. おこる あまりにも 当たり前な 事実なので 敢えて 証明する 手数さえ 必要 ない 位に 明白な 事実です. 彼に よって 人々は ますます 貧乏になります. 人口は 与える なりますね.

ところが 事実は どうでしたか. 正反対でした. 1910 年の 朝鮮人 人口は 大略 1600-1700 万 位でした. 1940 年には 2400 万でした. 日本と 満洲で 出た 人を 合わせれば 2600 万 位でした. 不過 30 年の 短い 期間に 50% 以上 人口が 増大したが, このような 人口増加 現象は 経済家 潰れて あったら 想像する 数 ない 仕事ですね.

彼 外に 経済史 研究者たちの 精緻な 統計的 推定に よれば, 殖民知己 1910-1940 年間に かけて 韓半島の 総所得は 年平均 3.7% 義 速度で 持続的に 成長しました. 彼 位は 当時 世界的に 高い 水準でした. 20 世紀 全般 世界資本注意は 正体と 危機の 時代でした. そのため 先進国だから しても 大概 2% 前後の 低い 成長率を 見えました. ところが 日本だけが 有毒 3-4% 義 高い 成長率を 見えたが, 私たち 韓半島が 日本の 領土で 編入されて あった 軟膏で 日本 本土と 同じく 彼 位の 経済成長率を 見えた のです.

皆さんは もう 底意 話に 不快感と かんのむしを 感じるか 分からないです. そうだが 冷情に 思って 見てください. 加令 大韓民国と言う(のは) 国が あるのに 全羅道は 年平均 4% 成長して 慶尚道は 年平均 -4% 路 後退する 仕事が ある 数 ないですね. 同じ 原理です. 韓半島は 日本帝国の たいてい 部分として 日製の 領土が なって 巻きました. たいてい 領土が なった のを 置いて 歴史学者たちが 植民地と 話して ある だけです. ところで 彼 理由で 日本が 経済成長した のと 必ず ような 位に 韓半島でも 経済成長が あるように なった のです.

どうに 真書 そうに なったんでしょうか. 日本で 米を 失語 運んだ のが なく 日本で 米を 輸出した だからです. 当時には 輸出が なく ‘移出’( 移出) 載せなさい しました. とにかく 日本の 米代が 朝鮮より 高くて 市場原理に よって 日本で 輸出された のですね. 彼 結果 輸出した 農民や 地主には 輸出所得が 発生するように なります. 国内で 米を 処分した 時より もっと 多い 所得が 発生しますね. それでは 経済家 成長する のです. 彼 輸出代金で 日本で 綿製品と ような 工産品も 輸入して, 満洲から 足りない 食糧も 仕こんで, 銀行と 会社に 投資も して, 工場渡 作って する のです.

このような 経済的 変化を まともに 分かること のために 私たちは 日製が 韓半島 朝鮮を 植民地で 支配した 目的や 方式から 正しく 卵 必要が あります. 日製が 韓半島を 植民地で 支配した 基本 目的は のぼったところ ‘永久併合’でした. 日製が 残した 統治史料を 見れば ‘永久併合’と言う(のは) 言葉が うんざりする 位に 自主 出ます. 永久に 日本の 領土で するという のですね. 日本の人々は ここに たいてい 20, 30 年間 住んで行って 帰ろうと 来た のが 決して いいえ. 永久に 暮そうと 来ました. これ 点を 真っすぐ 見つめる 必要が あります.

‘永久併合’の 目的を 果たすこと ためには どうに しなければなりませんか. 何より 朝鮮の 社会と 経済を 日本と ような ので 同化させる 必要が あります. そんな 目的で 日製は 自分 国の 法と 制度を 植民地 朝鮮に 移植しました. そうなの 日本人たちが 朝鮮で 越えて来て 自分 国のように 不便なしに 楽に 肉 の ないですか. 朝鮮人たちに 大海は 彼 文化と 精神を 奪って 日本人で 作ると 永久に 竝合する 数 あります. そうだ 夏期 のために 朝鮮の 文化と 精神を そのまま 置いては だめですね. 新しい 文化と 精神を 取り入れて 朝鮮人を 日本人で 変える 必要が ありました. そうな 目的で 日製は 近代的な 法と 制度を 朝鮮に 移植した のです.

彼 代表的な のが 1912 年に 発砲された 朝鮮民事領( 朝鮮民事令) です. この時 施行された 日本の 民法は 今も 大韓民国の 民法で つながって あります. 二 法を おいて 見れば 最初の 表現が 手順までも 変わるの なくて ある のが 多いです. ところが 近代的な 民法の 核心 原理は 何ですか. 彼に 大海 民法学者たちは ‘史蹟( 私的) 自由の 原則’を 話します. もうちょっと 具体的に 説明すれば 人間は 国家や 違う 人に 拘束されるの ない 自由な 存在として 彼 社会生活科 経済生活は 自分の 自由な 意思に よるという のです. おこる 財産権制度と 関して 第一 ‘所有権 絶対の 原則’で 現われます. 所有権は 絶対的に 不可侵で, 国家も これを 任意的に 侵害するとか 制限する 数 ないという のです.

二番目は ‘契約自由の 原則’です. おこる 財産権を 譲渡するとか 処分するに あって 持ち主の 自由意思に 基礎した 契約だけが 法的に 有效だという のです. 先に進んでも 指摘したんですが, 今日 大韓民国の 国民が 享受して ある 財産権制度は ところで ここで 出発して あります. 日製は 朝鮮の 社会と 経済を 統合する 政治原理で デモクラシーと 自由主義を 取り入れる なかったです. 日本 自分が 自由民主主義を まだ 分からなかったと 割 数 あります. 彼らは 家族主義的で 全体主義的な 政治原理を 天皇制の 形態で 発達させました.

日本が 自由民主主義の 政治原理を 理解して 実践する のは アメリカに 義解 天皇制 ミリタリズムが 解体された 1945 年 以後からです. そうだが 日製は 天皇制という 政治体制 下で 社会生活科 経済生活の 原理として 近代的な 民法を 西ヨーロッパで 取り入れて 自己流で 定着させました. そのため 大きく BoA 明治維新( 明治維新) 以後の 日本を 近代社会と 呼びますね. 彼 西ヨーロッパ 祈願の 近代の 要素が 殖民知己に 朝鮮に 移植された のです. ところで 植民地 朝鮮を 永久に 日本 帝国の 領土で 編入して 竝合して 進んで 同化させる モックゾックエソでした.

経済的な 側面の 同化政策に 大海 もうちょっと 説明します. 近代的な 民法と 商法が 移植された 植民地 朝鮮は 結局 日本と 一つの 市場で 統合されました. 1920 年まで あらゆる 関税が 廃止されました. 資本と 商品が 行き来する ところ 障害が 消えました. 彼に よって 二 地域間の 貿易が 大きく 発展しました. 貿易が 発達すれば どうに なりますか. 皆さんも 寝る おわかりの通り 1960 年代 以後 韓国経済は 輸出 貿易を 主導で 高度成長を しました. 同じです. 貿易が 増えれば 経済は 成長を するように なります.

経済欄 家計と 企業 簡儀 財貨と 労動力と 所得の 流れですね. ここに 輸出と 収入が 加われば 循環の 規模が 大きくなるように なりますね. 経済成長が 持続して 一人当たり 所得水準も 増加します. 彼 過程で 日本から 資本が 入って来て 朝鮮の 農土を 開墾して 工場を 作りました. そうに 日本人が 主体が なった 経済成長でした. そうに しきりに 資本が 入って来て 経済成長が 持続すれば 結局 どうに なりますか? 朝鮮の 土地と 地下資源と 工業施設は ますます 日本人の 所有が なります. ところで こういう のが 経済学的に 言って 真の 意味の 植民地的 収奪ですね.

奪って 間 のが なく 投資を して 韓半島の 経済的 資源を 日本人の 所有で 作って 行く のです. ところで 彼 点で 永久併合と 同化政策に よった 実質的な 収奪の 恐ろしい 結果を 見るように なります. 再び 言いますが 詐欺と 暴力で 人民の 財産を 奪う のは 古代の 掠奪国家や 中世の 征服国家たちが する 仕業です. 日製は そういう 野党だけの 国家が なかったです. 彼らは 近代社会だったし 近代国家でした. 彼らは 韓半島を 永久に 日本 領土で 編入しようと したし, 彼 目的に 投資を した のです.

逆説的に 聞こえるか 分からないですが, そういう 植民地的 収奪の 結果で 朝鮮の 社会と 経済も 近代化すること 始めました. 日本人たちが 工場を 作って 農場を 立てれば 朝鮮人たちが 労動者で また 小作農で 雇用されます. 彼に よって 朝鮮人の 所得が 増加すること 始めます. だけ なく 朝鮮人 中にも 日本人を 模範として 工場を 作って 企業家で 成長する 階層が 発生します. 先に進んで 近代 民法の 基本 精神を 言いました. 史蹟 自由の 原則ですね. 朝鮮人にも そういう 史蹟 自由の 原則が 適用されます. そうなの 童話だから.

ところが 全体 人口の 2-3% に 過ぎない 日本人が 朝鮮の あらゆる 土地と 資源を だ 所有する 数 ありますか? 絶対的には 相変らず 朝鮮人 所有の 財産が 多かったです. そんなにして 朝鮮人 資産家 中 日本人に 学んで また 日本に 留学して 上級学校を 卒業した 近代的な 人間集団が できる のです. 今日の 三星グループと 現代グループを 創業した イ・ビョンチョル 先生と 鄭周永 先生も 皆 殖民知己に 企業を 起こした 人々です.

1939 年 言葉が なれば そうに 朝鮮人として 工場を 経営して ある 人の 数価 日本人より 多く 4 布地 人を 過ぎるように なります. 近代化の 主役は どこまでも 日本人だったが, 多数の 朝鮮人たちも そこに そろそろ 参加すること 始めた のですね. 近代から 差別されながら 近代を 学習して 近代を 実践すること 始めた ゴッジです. そうに できた 近代的な ヒューマンキャピタルを 土台で して 後ほど 日製が これ 地で 退いた 時 これ 地に 私たち 力で 近代経済と 近代社会と 近代国家を 建設する 数 あった のです.

人間の 理性で 歴史の 偶然を だ 卵 数は ないです. 日製が 永久併合しようと 同化政策を 広げた 結果が そうに なる とはだ 誰が 分かったんですか. そんな のを 置いて 歴史の 悪知恵( 奸智) だと するのか 分からないです. そうに 日製が 朝鮮を 植民地で 支配した 歴史の 意義を 近代的な 法と 制度の 移植を 通恨 朝鮮の 近代化で 捜す 学説を 示して ‘殖民至近対話では’と します.

今 放送を して ある 私と 一緒に 走路 経済史を 研究する 人々が そんな 主張を 夏期 始めたが, いつのまにか 分かるように 分からなく 私どもを 批判する 人々が そういう 名前を 付けてくれますね. ‘殖民至近対話では’に 関して, すなわち 殖民知己に あった 経済的 変化に 大海, 見る 詳しく 分かって たい 分は 『解放戦後史の 再認識』1 圏に 積まれた ギムナックニョンの「植民地 時期の 工業化 再論」と 主翼種の「植民地 時期の 生活水準」と言う(のは) 二 論文を 参照するのを 望みます. 底意 性急な 説明より ずっと 詳しくて 有益な 説明を そこで 聞く 数 あります.

イ・ヨンフン ( ソウル大 教授, 『解放戦後史の 再認識』 共同編集者)

* イ・ヨンフン 教授の < 解放戦後史の 再認識 特講> 銀 EBS ラジオ ホームページ( 再び聞き取り) で 聞く 数 あります.

DATE: 2006.08.03

Thursday, March 29, 2007

"Abe needlessly fans the flames,"By FRANCIS FUKUYAMA,---is he?

Read it.

I am not a fan of Abe, I think Koizumi was much better.
I want Abe to concentrate on economic issue, and the alliance with the US and other countries strictly on business basis, rather than talking about patriotism.

But as for Abe needlessly fanning the flames, I have an objection.
Isn't is journalism and people like Fukuyama that fan the flames?
He talks about Yasukuni, of which issue Abe subdued.
He talks about Watanabe, Japanese rightist, but he has little to do with Abe.
He talks about the comparison between Germany and Japan, but it is ungrounded.

Wednesday, March 28, 2007

基礎からわかる「慰安婦問題」 読売新聞

I hope somebody will translate the article.
see also Were “Comfort Women” Actually “Forcibly Taken away to War Zones” against Their Will? via Anpontan)


Comfort station originated in govt-regulated 'civilian prostitution'

The Yomiuri Shimbun

Controversy over the so-called comfort women has been inflamed again. The U.S. House of Representatives has been deliberating a draft resolution calling for the Japanese government to apologize over the matter by spurning the practice as slavery and human trafficking. Why has such a biased view of the issue prevailed? The Yomiuri Shimbun carried in-depth reports on the issue Tuesday. The writers are Masanobu Takagi, Hiroaki Matsunaga and Emi Yamada of the political news department. Starting today, The Daily Yomiuri will carry the stories in three installments.

To discuss the comfort women issue, it is indispensable to understand the social background of the time when prostitution was authorized and regulated by the government in Japan. Prostitution was tacitly permitted in limited areas up until 1957, when the law to prevent prostitution was enforced.

Comfort women received remuneration in return for sexual services at so-called comfort stations for military officers and soldiers. According to an investigation report publicized by the government on Aug. 4, 1993, on the issue of comfort women recruited into sexual service for the Japanese military, there is a record mentioning the establishment of such a brothel in Shanghai around 1932, and additional similar facilities were established in other parts of China occupied by the Imperial Japanese Army.

Some of them were under the direct supervision of the military authorities, but many of the brothels catering to soldiers were privately operated.

Modern historian Ikuhiko Hata, a former professor at Nihon University, says the comfort women system should be defined as the "battleground version of civilian prostitution."

Comfort women were not treated as "paramilitary personnel," unlike jugun kangofu (military nurses) and jugun kisha (military correspondents). During the war, comfort women were not called "jugun ianfu" (prostitutes for troops). Use of such generic terminology spread after the war. The latter description is said to have been used by writer Kako Senda (1924-2000) in his book titled "Jugun Ianfu" published in 1973. Thereafter, the usage of jugun ianfu prevailed.

In addition to Japanese women, women from the Korean Peninsula and Taiwan, both then under Japanese colonial rule, and China, the Philippines, Indonesia and other countries invaded by the Imperial Japanese Army were recruited as comfort women.

Hata estimates that 40 percent of the wartime comfort women were Japanese, 30 percent Chinese and other nationalities and 20 percent Korean.

The total number of comfort women has yet to be determined exactly.

According to a report compiled by Radhika Coomaraswany of the U.N. Commission on Human Rights in 1996, there were 200,000 comfort women from the Korean Peninsula alone. The figure in the report was based on information Coomaraswany had obtained in North Korea. But this report contained many factual errors, and its quoted sources lacked impartiality. Foreign Minister Taro Aso rejected the figure of 200,000 as "lacking objective evidence."

The reasons cited for the need for comfort women and wartime brothels are as follows:

-- To prevent military officers and soldiers from raping women and committing other sex crimes in occupied areas.

-- To prevent venereal disease from spreading through troops who would otherwise contact local prostitutes who did not receive periodic medical checks.

-- To prevent military secrets from being leaked by limiting the women who provided sexual services to officers and soldiers to recruited comfort women.

Such a system and the use of wartime brothels generally are not limited only to the Imperial Japanese military.

The U.S. troops that occupied Japan after the war used brothels provided by the Japanese side. There was a case in which U.S. military officials asked the Japanese authorities to provide women for sexual services. During the Vietnam War, brothels similar to those established for the former Japanese military were available to U.S. troops, a U.S. woman journalist has pointed out.

Hata said: "There were wartime brothels also for the German troops during World War II. Some women were forced into sexual slavery. South Korean troops had brothels during the Korean War, according to a finding by a South Korean researcher."
(Mar. 30, 2007)yomiuri

■基礎からわかる「慰安婦問題」(解説) :読売新聞 2007年3月27日付 17面
 いわゆる従軍慰安婦問題をめぐる論議が再び蒸し返されている。米下院では、慰安婦問題を「奴隷制」「人身売買」になぞらえ、日本政府に謝罪などを求める対日決議案の審議が進んでいる。どうしてこうした曲解が広がってきたのか。あらためて論点を整理する。 (政治部・高木雅信、松永宏朗、山田恵美)

 慰安婦は、従軍看護婦や従軍記者らのように「軍属」扱いされることはなく、「従軍慰安婦」という呼称は存在しなかった。その呼称が広まったのは戦後のことで、作家の千田夏光氏が73年に出版した「従軍慰安婦」 の影響が大きかった。



 「強制連行はあった」という見方が広がるきっかけとなったのが、83年に元「労務報国会下関支部動員部長」を名乗る吉田清治氏が出版した「私の戦争犯罪」という本 だ。吉田氏は、済州島(韓国)で“慰安婦狩り”にかかわった経験があるとして、「泣き叫ぶ女を両側から囲んで、腕をつかんでつぎつぎに路地に引きずり出してきた」などと生々しく記述した。しかし、この本は90年代半ばには研究者によって信憑性が否定され、安倍首相も07年3月5日の参院予算委員会で、「朝日新聞(の報道)だったと思うが、吉田清治という人が慰安婦狩りをしたと証言した訳だが、後にでっち上げだと分かった」と述べ、強制連行の証拠にはならないと指摘した。

◆あいまい表現の河野談話 「強制連行」の誤解広げる  /歴代首相おわびの手紙 基金から償い金も




Bengal Famine

But it's a full-on outrage, a crime, that Western historians still ignore all the brutal genocides the British forced on us in India both during and before WWII. The most egregious example is the Bengal Famine in East India, in which 3-5 MILLION Indians were end by that bastard Winston Churchill, and it was all intentional:

Notice the term, "Rice Denial Scheme"-- when Indian Independence movement began to spring up in 1941-42, Churchill and his fellow British mbutt liquidateers found it all too convenient to wipe out as many Indians as possible with a nice pre-planned famine. The British humiliation at Singapore gave them the perfect excuse so in 1942, they shut down the Bengali farms (Bengal a center of the Indian Resistance Movement) and confiscated the rice and other crops to make sure those rebellious Hindus died nice and quiet, see. This was the same Churchill who with Arthur Harris pushed for contagion gas to be used in the Middle East when the Brits were as usual having their buttes kicked by the "inferior" tribes that they disdained.

This was of course nothing new. After the War of Independence in 1857, the Brits saw fit to mbuttacre who knows how many millions of Indians in the same sorts of famines and attacks. (Dyer in 1919 thought he was doing the same sort of thing at Jallian Wala Bagh.) My grandfather used to tell me the stories about the things the Brits did to people out in Bengal, Delhi, Bihar in the years following 1857, when I was old enough to understand, and it still chills your blood. Tossing whole families into small wooden sheds and setting them ablaze. That old Roman punishment, forcing water into people under their kidneys broke down and they died writhing on the ground. Forcing teenagers, adolescent kids, to shoot and kill their own relatives who were suspected of being "insurgents" against the East India Company. And those poor natives of Andaman, not to mention the ones in Australia who were also in the East India Company's path and had their civilization nearly wiped out-- the Nazis could never compare with what those bastards did in terms of the way they utterly took out those ancient cultures. British Bengal famine and other ignored genocides of WWII

On the other hand wiki provides another view. It seems the wiki's article just resembles what is said about Bataan Death March by Japanese apologists.

Comfort women and Asian Women’s Fund Projects, by Country or Region

Women’s Fund

(the emphasis mine)

Republic of Korea
......The Government provides these women with a fixed monthly sum to subsidize their living expenses. Of the 207 authenticated people, 72 had died, 135 were still alive, with 2 of them residing outside the country, as of November 2002.The Government of the Republic of Korea initially showed a favorable stance toward the establishment of the Asian Women's Fund. But the stance changed to disfavor, basically because one non-governmental organization supporting the victims, the Korean Council for the Women Drafted for Military Sexual Slavery by Japan, or ìChongdaehyop,î mounted a vigorous campaign against the Asian Women's Fund, and because of criticism in the media, as well.

The former comfort women varied considerably in their attitudes. Some criticized the Fund and repudiated it. Others were dissatisfied that the Fund was involved, but still wanted to accept project benefits. Those who had publicly stated they intended to accept benefits were criticized, and pressure was applied against them. Some of these women reluctantly issued another statement repudiating the Asian Women's Fund.........In December 1996, Ms. Kimiko Kaneda (not her real name) announced that she appreciated the Fund's efforts and intended to accept its project benefits. Pressure was applied against her to refuse them, but soon another six victims announced that they too would accept benefits. On 11 January 1997, representing the Fund, its Director, Teruko Kanehira, gave seven of the victims the Prime Minister's letter at a hotel in Seoul........Both the victims and the Fund found it hard to bear the fact that the atonement money and other benefits had led to pressure being applied on the victims who received them......However, a campaign was mounted to collect private donations within the Republic of Korea, to persuade women to refuse Fund project benefits. The donations were used to provide victims with a fixed amount of assistance money. The seven victims who had accepted benefits from the Fund's atonement projects were excluded from the program......Kim Dae Jung became President of the Republic of Korea in March that year. In May, the new administration decided that, although it would not demand state reparations from the Japanese Government, it would pay 31.5 million won (at the time, about 3.1 million Japanese yen), plus an additional 4.18 million won from capital collected by the Korean Council (ìChongdaehyop,î) as living expense subsidies to each former comfort woman who vowed to refuse Asian Women's Fund project benefits. The Government of the Republic of Korea paid this sum to 142 people, but did not pay it to 11 people ó the seven who had accepted Fund benefits in the early stages, and four others who did not sign the written oath because they had accepted Fund benefits......The seven who initially accepted Fund benefits, and the others who did so confidentially, were placed in a psychologically painful situation because of the strong influence of activist groups that regard the Fund's atonement projects in the Republic of Korea as a way for the Japanese Government to avoid responsibility. The Fund kept up its efforts to ensure that all those who accepted atonement project benefits would be socially accepted, but unfortunately the current situation shows that these efforts did not bring positive results.

.... the Indonesian Government expressed a desire for assistance in developing welfare facilities for the elderly, rather than for projects benefiting individual former comfort women. This conclusion was reached primarily because: (i) it would be extremely difficult to authenticate former comfort women;*(ii) it was important to protect the honor of the former comfort women and their families; and (iii) the question of war reparations from Japan to Indonesia had already been settled by accords, specifically the Treaty of Peace

the Philippines
....Applicant authentication was done by public prosecutors attached to the above-mentioned Department of Justice of the Philippine Government.....All approved applicants received Fund benefits

The Netherlands
......AWF was to grant 255 million yen to the PICN with the purpose to improve the living conditions of Dutch victims, as a way to express the feelings of atonement of the Japanese Government and people. All of this money would be provided from Japanese Government funds. It was decided that the entire amount of 255 million, with the exception of a maximum of 10 million yen for administrative expenses, would be used for victims wishing to participate in the project......The application deadline was set for 15 March 1999, and applications were received from 107 people. The PICN followed strict standard criteria when examining the applications, and approved 79 people as project recipients. Conditions for approval included Dutch nationality at the time, and that the victim had been forced through physical means into prostitution by Japanese occupying forces during World War II. Other factors considered included location, frequency, nature of trauma, and causes of illness, etc.

Victims approved as recipients were provided with goods and services valued at an average of approximately 50,000 guilders (3 million yen) per person. .....Following the request made by the PICN, a copy of the letter in English from Prime Minister Hashimoto addressed to Prime Minister Kok of the Netherlands was delivered to each victim in April 1999. It repeated the contents of the letter of apology that the Japanese Prime Minister had written to victims in the Philippines, the Republic of Korea and Taiwan. The letter began with this sentence: ìThe Government of Japan is painfully aware of its moral responsibility concerning the issue of so-called wartime comfort women.î The letter also points out that the Asian Womenís Fund implements the projects in order to express the national atonement on the issue and that the Government cooperates with the AWF

....According to local media reports in April 2002, 36 Taiwanese women identified as victims were still alive at that time. Taiwan authorities pay identified victims 15,000 Taiwanese dollars (about 60,000 Japanese yen) per month to subsidize their living expenses......The Taipei Women's Rescue Foundation, which had opposed the Asian Women's Fund ever since its projects began, reacted by distributing approximately 500,000 Taiwan dollars (equivalent to about 2 million Japanese yen) to each victim who submitted a signed oath that she would refuse benefits from the Asian Women's Fund. The distributed money came from profits earned through auctions held mainly by the Foundation. Then in February 1998, members of the Legislative Yuan applied pressure on the Taiwanese authorities and had them pay each victim 500,000 Taiwan dollars (about 2 million Japanese yen) as an advance, supposedly to be repaid later by the Japanese Government as ìcompensation.î

Many of the victims live in poverty, and almost all are prone to illness. Many inquiries were received from people expressing a desire to obtain atonement money and medical and welfare project benefits from the Asian Women's Fund. However, victims who were pressured by people advising them not to accept benefits felt anxious, believing that if they accepted benefits from the Fund their living expense subsidies would be terminated.......Fortunately, in spite of the difficult situation, the Fund was able to provide atonement project benefits to a considerable number of former comfort women.




In Indonesia, when Japanese lawyer asked ex-comfort women to come forward, 22.000 women came out. There was only 20,000 or so Japanese soldiers at the time at Java.

Tuesday, March 27, 2007

Comfort women How was it "parents sold their daughter"

See also How has it been women are sold in China.
Japanese prostitute job application found in China
how was it Korean women were sold by their parent

It seems some people do not understand the situation how parents sold their daughter ; It was happening and it has been happening in the poverty stricken countries.

Where do the cheap workers come form? They all come from the farming communities... People from families that are working their own land, or are engaged in tenant farming but have surplus workers, come to the cities and the industrial centers to become factory workers...Income from the farms provides for the family needs and subsistence of the parents and siblings....The money that the factory girls brought back by climbing over Nomugi Pass was often more than a "water-drinking" farmer's income for the entire year.......The wish to make my parents happy with the money I earned with my tears during the year... made me cross Nomugi Pass at the end of the year full of joyous expectations. Oral Records of "Crossing Nomugi Pass"
to work in the Suma Mills, ca. 1900

Oshin comes from a family of poor rice farmers. Her father and brother must work in the fields and her grandmother and mother, who is expecting another child, barely have enough to eat. In order to make ends meet for her family, 7-year-old Oshin gives up school and decides to become a servant in the household of a wealthy family, where she faces trials and tribulation beyond her worst fears

These were situations of Japan in early 19 century.
It is not accurate and too simple to say that parents sold their daughter.

The situation is not uncommon even today.
Trafficking of children often involves exploitation of the parents' extreme poverty. The latter may sell children to traffickers in order to pay off debts or gain income or they may be deceived concerning the prospects of training and a better life for their childrenwiki

And many women were desperate to find job, and there, there were broker to make use of it.
until the debt is repaid. On the other hand, the trafficking victim is enslaved, or the terms of their debt bondage are fraudulent or highly exploitative. The trafficker takes away the basic human rights of the victim. Victims are sometimes tricked and lured by false promises or physically

Some were " sold" to brothels.

The Opening of Japan and the subsequent flood of Western influences into Japan brought about a series of changes. Japanese novelists, notably Higuchi Ichiyo, started to draw attention to the confinement and squalid existence of the lower-class prostitutes in the red-light districts. In 1908, Ministry of Home Affairs Ordinance No. 16 penalized unregulated prostitution.

Escaping poverty in their own land, many Japanese women, known as Karayuki-san (唐行きさん?) (lit. "Ms. Gone-to-China/Korea"), worked (or were sold) as prostitutes into Southeast Asia (especially Singapore and the Philippines), Siberia, Hawaii, Australia, and even some parts of India and Africa.


It is not surprising that many of Korean comfort women were "sold" by their parents.

She told us how she was sold by her step-father, how brutally she was beaten and raped by soldiers and how she was later rejected by society, including her own family.BBC21 March 2007,

It is not just her, but many others.
For instance, Kim Hukson(金学順, the first comfort women to have come
forward as a “Comfort Woman, said, she was sold by her step
黄錦周 once said she was sold to the wealthy house at 12.

Remember the former-comfort woman, who was arrested for spreading the rumor concerning the military?

Kim Koon-ja, who also testified at the US congress, once said
when I was 17, two Korean men came to my house and and said they found the job at factory for me. I was taken to the comfort station by train.(26 Feb Asahi

It is not clear whether her parents had a contract with the broker. It might be the broker deceived her.

Another ex-comfort woman , Lee Yong-soo, who testified at the US congress, once said,
that she was shown the box with shoes and beautiful clothes in it by Japanese citizen wearing Japanese national uniform during World War II . She was so happy to get the box that she followed the man. She was taken to the brothel.

And in most of the testimonies they were deceived by Korean brokers.

The county was poor and the family was the poor and the women were poor: They needed to live, and survive. There are brokers who made used of the situation. I am not sure in every case parents "sold" their daughter, but in many case the women had to work to support their family anyway. The situation has not changed.
Most women support family members with their incomes; earning money to pay for a parent's medical treatment or a brother's school fees is a common motivation in their sex work. Sex Among Allies by Katharine H. S. Moon

BTW for some reason some comfort women has changed their testimonies in such a way that people can attack Japanese military more easily.











この記述ではかなりぼかされているが、朝日新聞が書いた朝鮮人二人は消えてなくなっている。さらに、ネット上には、こんなふうに証言したという記録も出ている(平成17年11月「東京の高校生 平和のつどい」)。












2004.02.26 18:56:42Japanese joong Ang


26145 円の貯金があったという文玉珠毎日新聞 1992 年5 月22 日の記事

第二次世界大戦中『従軍慰安婦』として強制連行されたミャンマー(旧ビルマ)で預けた軍事貯金の支払いを求めていた韓国・大邸市在住の文(ムン)玉珠(オクス)さん(68 歳)が11 日、山口県下関市の下関郵便局を訪れ、預けた貯金の原簿があったことが分かった。(中略)文さんは『個人の請求権は消滅していない。
原簿によると43 年6 月から45 年9 月まで12 回の貯金の記録があり、残高は26,145 円となっている。
文玉珠の貯金が、いかに巨額であったかを物語っている。昭和史研究所会報1999年12月号.......二等兵 9~6円

takeshima/dokdo Ahn's Matsuhima. 1696

The following is what An yongbok said to Korean authority in 1696.

An Yong-bok, a resident of Dongrae in Gyeongsang Province, went to Ulsan to visit his sick mother. There he met the monk Noi-hyeon and others, who he told about his trip to Ulleungdo, which he said was an island with an abundance of products. Noi-hyeon and his party listened to the story and decided to go to Ulleungdo with Yeonghae resident Yu Il-bu and his party.

Let's note visiting Ulleungdo was illegal in those days.

Many Japanese ships were at the island, and the people in the party were afraid to approach them, but An Yong-bok yelled in a thundering voice, “Ulleungdo is our territory. What are you Japanese doing crossing over our border? I am going to capture you.”

Japanese record shows that there weren't many ships, and Japanese fishermen were supposed to have rifles with them to hunt abalone.

At this the Japanese answered, “We are residents of Matsushima (松島) and come here sometimes to catch fish. That is all. We were just getting ready to return.”

Then An Yong-bok said, Matsushima is Jasando (Usando), which is also our country’s land. How can you be living there?”

This is the part on which Korean side base its claim. Matsushima is Jasando.
They claims that since "Matsuhima" is Dokdo/takeshima, Jasando is Dokdo/takeshima.
Note that Ahn's "Matushima" is the island where people could live, but you can not live on Dokdo/Takeshima.

The next morning they got in their boat and sailed to Jasando, where they found Japanese boiling fish in a big pot. An Yong-bok hit the pot with a stick and broke it and yelled at them in a loud voice. The Japanese gathered their pots together loaded them on their boat and ran away. Then An Yong-bok and his party got in their boat and chased after them, but they met a wind and drifted to Oki Island. The head of Oki Island came and asked why they had come there.

There were 21 Japanese and 11 Koreans according to Japanese record , but you can not fight like this at Dokdo/takshima.
Keep in mind Japanese fishermen had rifles with them to hunt abalone.
And it takes one day to reach Dokdo from Ulleungdo. Ahn started sailing in the morning and suppose they reached the Jasando in the evening; still, it is much short of one day.


[An said] said, “Last year when I came here, there is a letter written by the Gwanbaek (觀白 - an aide to the shogun) saying that both Ulleungdo and Jasando are Joseon territory. But the promise has not been completely kept. Why are you now again trespassing? Please relay this to Houki.”
The head of Oki Island said he comunicated this to Houki, but even after a long time there was no answer. He got angry, got on his boat, and headed to Houki.

Japanese record show no such letter.

According to Japanese record, it is written that An said from chosun to Ulleungdo was 30 Korean ri, from Ulleungdo to "Matsuhima" is 50 ri.

"Chosun-Ulleungdo = 30 Korean ri =120km"
"Ulleungdo - Matsuhima = 50 Korean ri = 200km

In reality
Chosun - Ullengdo =130km
Ulleungdo-Dokdo = 87,4 km
Ulleungdo-Oki ≦ 87.4+157.5≒245km

Oki is much reasonable candidate for "Matsuhima" in this case.

toron talker

In the previouse testimoniesto Korean authority , An's "Matsuhima" is most likely to be Jukdo, juding from the time it took from Ulleungdo, and the way people cook and fought. In Japaese record, An's "Matsuhima" is most likely to be Oki.
He said in another place the island was quite big. There are no island except Oki as
big as, bigger than Ulleungdo.

In either case, Ahn's "Matsuhima" is not Dokdo.

As a side note, Ahn wanted to find the island because he heard the island was rich in resouce. That was the island he wanted to go, to such an entent that he violated the law. And he wanted to avoid the death penalty after he was handed over to Korean authority. You know what some people would say to avoid the death penalty.

Korean brokers active as ever

More Korean men working in Japanese host bars.....Bahk said, “Brokers are using enticing language, such as guaranteed salaries of 10 million won a month, good working conditions and language training to recruit people to send to Japan’s amusement quarters......Experts worry that since many Japanese make simple comparisons between Korean prostitution in Japan and the World War II comfort women, overseas prostitution of this sort could lead to stereotypes about Koreans.

Naver2007-03-27 10:09]*
But how can people miss the similarity between Korean brokers under and after Japanese rule and the these brokers?

via Marmot
일본 성매매·유흥업소 취업 까페가 성업중에 있으며 최근에는 한국 남성의 일본 호스트 바 취업까지 늘고 있다는 주장이 제기됐다.

한나라당 박재완 의원(보건복지위)은 27일, 일본 성매매·유흥업소 취업 카페가 2006년10월 부터 2007년3월까지 70개 활동하고 있으며 한국 남성의 일본 호스트바 취업 카페는 15개가 활동하고 있다고 밝혔다.
ハンナラ党薄才とは議員(保健福祉委員会)は 27日,日本性売買·遊興業店就業カフェーが 2006年10月から 2007年3月まで 70個活動しているし韓国男性の日本ホストバー就業カフェーは 15個が活動していると明らかにした.

현재 일본 내 한국인 불법 체류자는 4~6만명으로 추산되며 이들 중 3만 여명이 성매매·유흥업소에 종사하는 것으로 추정되고 있다.
現在日本内韓国である不法滞留者は 4~6万名に推算されてこれらの中で 3万名余が性売買·遊興業店に携わることに推定されている.

여기에 이제는 국내 호스트 바가 포화상태에 이르자 일본 호스트 바로 한국 남성의 진출이 크게 늘고 있다는 지적.

박 의원은 "브로커들이 카페에서 월 1천만원대의 소득 보장, 좋은 근무조건, 어학 연수 등의 감언이설을 동원, 사람들을 모집해 일본 유흥가로 송출하고 있다"고 설명했다.
朴議員は "ブローカーたちがカフェーで月 1千万遠大の所得保障,良い勤務組でも,語学研修などの口車を動員,人々を募集して日本遊興街で送り出している"と説明した.

무엇보다 박 의원은 문제는 일본 특유의 복잡하고 정교한 벌칙 조항들 때문에 한국인이 일본 유흥가나 사창가에서 돈을 모아 귀국하기는 사실상 어렵다고 강조한다.

이와 함께 일본 유흥가 취업과 관련해 주민등록증, 운전면허증, 여권, 호적 등 신분증 위조조직․밀입국조직이 개입한 흔적도 밝혀졌다.

박 의원이 작년 10월말 유흥업소 취업 카페에서는 신분증 위조조직이 취업·신분위장 등을 위해 주민등록증(남자 40만원, 여자 60만원), 운전면허증(남자 70만원, 여자 100만원) 위조(남자 24명, 여자 11명)를 광고하는 것을 포착한 것.
朴 議員が去年 10月末遊興業店就業カフェーでは身分証偽造組職が就業·身分偽装などのために住民登録証(男 40万ウォン,女 60万ウォン),運転兔許証(男 70万ウォン,女 100万ウォン) 偽造(男 24人,女 11人)を広告することを捕捉したこと.

무엇보다 한국 종사자들의 여권을 일본 유흥업소에 맡기도록 하는 경우가 종종 있어 여권 위조의 위험과 함께 거주 이전도 제한되는 등의 유흥업소에 종사하는 한국인이 인권침해와 안전문제에 시달리는 것으로 추정되고 있다.

이 에, 박 의원은 일본에서 성매매·유흥업소에 종사하는 한국인의 실태를 조사하고 대응책을 마련할 것을 촉구하며 조직적으로 일본 성매매·유흥업소 취업을 알선하는 인터넷 카페를 조사해 카페 운영자와 브로커들을 사법조치하는 한편 포털은 일본 유흥가 취업 알선 카페들을 ‘블라인드’(blind) 처리할 것을 주장했다.
こ れに,朴議員は日本で性売買·遊興業店に携わる韓国人の実態を調査して対応策を用意することを促して組織的に日本性売買·遊 興業店就業を斡旋するインターネットカフェーを調査してカフェー運営者とブローカーたちを司法処置する一方ポータルは日本遊興街就業斡旋カフェーたちを ‘ブラインド’(blind) 処理することを主張した.

또한 일본 경찰과 공조해 공문서 위·변조 카페를 근절해야 한다고 덧붙였다.

한편, 이 같은 일본 원정 성매매에 대해 적지 않은 일본인들이 종군위안부와 원정 성매매를 단순비교하고 있어 한국인에 대한 편견이 생길 가능성이 높다고 전문가들은 우려하고 있다.

Monday, March 26, 2007

comfort women in Korea after independence/GI's heaven and special entertainers

Here is some execrpt from Sex Among Allies
by Katharine H. S. Moon

Tell me the difference between comfort women and bar girls/ kijich.

U.S. military-oriented prostitution in Korea is not simply a matter of women walking the streets and picking up U.S. soldiers for a few bucks. It is a system that is sponsored and regulated by two governments, Korean and American (through the U.S. military).The U.S. military and the Korean government have referred to such women as "bar girls," "hostesses," "special entertainers," "businesswomen," and "comfort women." Koreans have also called these women the highly derogatory names, yanggalbo (Western whore) and yanggongju (Western princess)

The vast majority of these women have experienced in common the pain of contempt and stigma from the mainstream Korean society. These women have been and are treated as trash, "the lowest of the low," in a Korean society characterized by classist (family/educational status-oriented) distinctions and discrimination. The fact that they have mingled flesh and blood with foreigners (yangnom) 4 in a society that has been racially and culturally homogeneous for thousands of years makes them pariahs, a disgrace to themselves and their people, Korean by birth but no longer Korean in body and spirit. Neo-Confucian moralism regarding women's chastity and strong racialist conscience among Koreans have branded these women as doubly "impure." The women themselves bear the stigma of their marginalization both physically and psychologically. They tend not to venture out of camptowns and into the larger society and view themselves as "abnormal," while repeatedly referring to the non-camptown world as "normal." Once they experience kijich'on life, they are irreversibly tainted: it is nearly impossible for them to reintegrate themselves into "normal" Korean society. Kim Yang Hyang, in the documentary The Women Outside, recalls how her family members rejected her when she returned to her village after working for a time in the kijich'on. One of her cousins told her, "Don't come around our place."

"Too different" was a polite way of saying what many Korean activists and academics today, even those who advocate on behalf of the former Korean "comfort women" to the Japanese military in World War II, still believe--kijich'on prostitutes work in the bars and clubs because they voluntarily want to lead a life of prostitution, because they are lacking in moral character. This kind of academic and activist negligence of kijich'on prostitutes is a function of the Korean society's bias against these women--that they are an "untouchable" class, that they have already departed so far from the norms and values of mainstream society to deserve consideration of the political, economic, and cultural sources of their unenviable existence.

American Town is like many of the other numerous camptowns near or adjoined to major U.S. military camps in South Korea. Like no other places in Korea, Americans and Koreans together make up the residents of the kijich'on.

What distinguishes American Town from the other camptowns is its physical isolation--it is completely walled off, with a guard posted at the gate--and its"incorporated" status. American Town is not simply a place; it is a corporation, with a president and board of directors who manage all the businesses and people living and working in it. The corporation headquarters occupies a small building within the walled compound. Originally, the Town was constructed in the early-to-mid 1970s through funds from both the local government and Seoul

There are two types of kijich'on prostitutes, the registered and the unregistered, or so-called streetwalkers. This book is about the first group of women, who are the governmentally recognized"special entertainers." Registered women sell drinks, dance with GIs, and pick up their customers in the kijich'on clubs. These women have more job security than streetwalkers because they have official sanction to sell their flesh. Moreover, they have a regular establishment from which they can attract customers, and they will not be hauled off to jail for prostitution, unlike streetwalkers, unless their official identification cards are invalid.

In order to work in the clubs, a woman must go to the local police station to register her name and address and the name of the club where she will be working. She must also go to the local VD clinic, undergo gynecological and blood examinations and receive a VD card.

Moreover, to sell drinks, she must mingle with various GIs in one night, fondling them and being fondled by them in return. On the average, in the mid-1990s, clubs were paying a hostess $250 a month. 9 Selling drinks, however, has never been the mainstay of the women's earnings: Women are expected to sleep with GIs for the bulk of their income because their cut from selling drinks cannot support them, and"[m]any places don't pay any salary." 10 In Uijongbu in the mid-1980s,"long-time" (overnight) was $20, while"short-time" (hourly rate) was $10. 11 Owners and pimps generally take 80% and give the prostitute 20% of her earnings per trick.

Most women do not come into the clubs equipped with"hostessing skills" and the willingness to share flesh with GIs. For women who are new to the club scene, an initiation process often takes place. Some women attest to having been raped by their pimp/manager; others have been ordered by the club owner to sleep with a particular soldier; yet others stumble into bed with GIs on their own; some receive advice on the type of man to avoid (e.g., violent types) from more experienced prostitutes.

Both the prostitutes and U.S. military officials have observed that club women aggressively seek out customers. In Camp Arirang, Kim Yonja recalls how she and other women grabbed onto men in order to make money.

How prostitutes fare physically, financially, and emotionally in the kijich'on environment depends to a great extent on the particular club owner/manager and GI customers she encounters. As"Nanhee" says, some GIs are mean and nasty, especially when they are drunk; others are nice and gentle. 18 At worst, a woman encounters a GI who beats her and murders her, as Yun Kumi did in October 1992. Private Kenneth Markle was convicted of killing her; her landlord found her body--"naked, bloody, and covered with bruises and contusions--with laundry detergent sprinkled over the crime site. In addition, a coke bottle was embedded in Yun's uterus and the trunk of an umbrella driven 27 cm into her rectum."

The"debt bondage system" is the most prominent manifestation of exploitation. A woman's debt increases each time she borrows money from the owner--to get medical treatment, to send money to her family, to cover an emergency, to bribe police officers and VD clinic workers. Most women also begin their work at a new club with large amounts of debt, which usually results from the"agency fee" and advance pay. Typically, (illegal) job placement agencies which specialize in bar and brothel prostitution place women in a club and charge the club owner a fee. The owner transfers the fee onto the new employee's"account" at usurious rates; Ms. Pak mentions one club owner charging 10%. 25 Often, women ask the owner for an advance in order to pay off her existing debts to another club, and the cycle of debt continues. Owners also set up a new employee with furniture, stereo equipment, clothing, and cosmetics--items deemed necessary for attracting GI customers. These costs get added to the woman's account with interest. In 1988, the left-leaning Mal Magazine (Malchi), reported that on the average, prostitutes' club debts range between one and four million won 26 ($1,462 and $5,847 respectively in 1988 terms). For this reason, women try to pick up as many GIs as possible night after night, and for this reason, women cannot leave prostitution at will. Nanhee sums up the debt-ridden plight:


The great majority of women who enter kijich'on prostitution have already experienced severe deprivation and abuse--poverty, rape, repeated beatings by lovers or husbands. The camp followers of the war era lived off their bodies and fed their family members with their earnings. Korean camptown officials who had lived through the war expressed sympathy for the early generations of prostitutes when I interviewed them in 1992. Their sentiment was such:"All of us Koreans back then--educated or uneducated--were dirt poor; we were all in the same boat and were forced to do things beneath our dignity to survive."

Poverty, together with low class status, has remained the primary reason for women's entry into camptown prostitution from the 1950s to the mid-1980s.Stories of growing up with no plot of land or high debts from farming attempts, going hungry amidst eight or nine siblings, barely finishing a few years of schooling, and tending to ill parents resound among kijich'on women. Many of these women were part of the migration flow from the countryside to the cities in the 1960s. 28 They left their villages in search of work, believing that they had a 50/50 chance of"making it" in urban areas. 29 But finding employment, especially one that paid enough to support a woman and her family in the countryside, was difficult. A report by the Eighth U.S. Army, which discusses some causes of women's entry into camptown prostitution, states that among women aged 18 to 40 who were living in Seoul in 1965, 60% were unemployed. 30 Although women have served as the backbone of South Korea's economic miracle, through their work in light-manufacturing industries, not all women have had luck finding and keeping viable work."Hyun Ja," a middle-aged divorcée with children, who had no more than a grade-school education, became a GI prostitute as a last resort--factory jobs catered mostly to young women and were therefore difficult to obtain. 31

Still others were physically forced into prostitution by flesh-traffickers or pimps who waited at train and bus stations, greeted young girls arriving from the countryside with promises of employment or room and board, then"initiated" them--through rape--into sex work or sold them to brothels. Women also fell into prostitution by responding to fraudulent advertisements which offered appealing calls for employment as waitresses, storekeepers, singers, and entertainers. Some ads even promised"education" (kyoyuk) without specifying what the women would be expected to learn. 32

For example, one woman who had answered an advertisement for a job in a restaurant found that she was taken to a GI bar. There"[s]he was made to die [sic] her hair blond and wear braless T-shirts and hot pants" and was"beaten into submission" and"forced to provide sexual services" to GIs. This came at the heels of a history of deprivation and abuse; she had been orphaned as a child,"adopted" by a Korean family who used her as a"slave" to take care of the family's four boys, raped by the father, and kicked out by the sons. Then she went to work at a factory and married the owner's son, who physically abused her and abandoned her and their newborn son. 33

The overwhelming majority of the prostitutes have experienced a combination of poverty, low class status, physical, sexual, and emotional abuse even before entering the kijich'on world. Their identities had already become one of"fallen woman." Having lost their virginity and not having much family connections or education to fall back on, these women often expressed that there was not much else they could do; they were already"meat to be slaughtered on the butcher's block" (toma wi e innun kogi). Kim Yonja, who is unusual for having completed high school in the late 1950s, often speaks about being raped at 11 years of age by her cousin as one reason why she entered the kijich'on world. She believes this rape would not have occurred and that her life would have turned out better if her mother had been at home to protect her; but her mother had to work as a traveling peddler because her father had abandoned them.

Since the early 1960s, most camptowns have had a"Women's Autonomous Association" (chach'ihoe) which, in the best of circumstances, functions as a support group for club prostitutes in their interactions with owners

om the perspective of the police and local government, the purpose of the chach'ihoe is to make the women monitor one another in matters pertaining to VD regulations and"business conduct,

Most women support family members with their incomes; earning money to pay for a parent's medical treatment or a brother's school fees is a common motivation in their sex work. A 1965 study conducted by the Eighth Army found that of 105 prostitutes surveyed in the Yongsan area, all"were supporting from one to eight members of their family." 39 Stories about young females working in camptown prostitution to pay for their brothers' high school and university education or their parents' medical expenses still abound in Korea. 40 Ms. Pak, who had sold sex to Koreans before entering a kijich'on club, chose to sell sex to Americans because it would be better for her brothers' futures:

Prior to the Korean War, the sex work of camp followers was informally organized and unregulated. The women who sold sex to U.S. occupation forces from 1945 to 1949, who like other camp followers in other lands at other times, followed or greeted troops with willingness to wash laundry, run errands, and provide sex for some form of remuneration--money, food, cigarettes. Prostitution took place in U.S. military barracks in the early years of U.S. military occupation (1945-46) and in shabby makeshift dwellings called panjatjip (literally, houses made of boards). By the late occupation period (1947-49), simple inns or motels (kani hot'el) also became the loci of sexual exchange

The economic power that U.S. servicemen represented and wielded in the camptowns easily translated into social and sexual clout over Korean kijich'on residents. South Korea in the 1960s became the"GI's heaven"; it was a time when an average GI could live like a king in villages"built, nurtured and perpetuated for the soldiers of the U.S. Army," 56 a time when things American, especially the dollar, were almighty. Men and women danced and drank to their hearts' content with cheap liquor and loud music; over 20,000 registered prostitutes were available to"service" approximately 62,000 U.S. soldiers by the late 1960s. For $2 or less per hour ("short time") or $5 to $10 for an"overnight," 57 a soldier could revel in sexual activities with prostitutes. Servicemen purchased not only sex mates but maids, houseboys, shoeshine boys, errand boys, and other locals with ease. Bruce Cumings characterizes the 1960s as a time when"[o]ne could be born to a down-and-out family in Norfolk . . . and twenty years later live like the country-club set" in Korea, a time when the"highest Korean ultimately meant less than the lowest American in the entourage." 58

The US soldiers rapes women on the train.(11 Jan/1947 東亜日報)
The US soldiers gangraped women 19 years old(11 Nov 1954 東亜日報)
A cofort woman for GIs committed suicide.(21 July 1957 東亜日報)
A african american GI is suspected of murdering comfort women(1 May 東亜日報)

via ☆大韓ニダの介の韓国研究~韓国企業で働いた経験を持つ著者の嫌韓批判&反日批判

Friday, March 23, 2007

Nakasone's comfort station

"I never had personal knowledge of the matter," Nakasone told reporters at the Foreign Correspondents Club of Japan when asked about wartime sex slaves, known in Japan euphemistically as "comfort women."

"I only knew about it from what I read in the newspaper," he said, adding that such enslavement was "deplorable" and that he supported the Japanese government spokesman's 1993 apology to victims.

A Nakasone memoir published in 1978 said that members of his 3,000-man navy unit in wartime Philippines and Borneo "began attacking women, while others took to gambling."

"At one point, I went to great pains to set up a comfort station" to keep them under control, he wrote. The essay was in an anthology of war accounts, "The Eternal Navy -- Stories to Hand Down to the Younger Generation."MSN・March 23, 2007

According to this blogger
and this blogger and others, on page 78 in the book in which the author interviewed Nakasone, Nakasone was supposed to have said;

That was a big troop consisting of as much as 3000 soldeirs.Some of them
started attacking local women and others started taking to gambles. For them, I had once taken great pains to set up a comfort station.

There is a blogger that doubts if Nakasone really said it in the interview, but that is not the point.
Supposing he said it and he lied at the press conference, still the Nakasone comment is consistent with the research so far done about the comfort station; Japanese troop set up the house for the comfort station, let the pimps recruit the women.

And if I remember correctly, it was Nanjing that motivated Japan to set up comfort station; In the infamous Nanjing massacre, Japanese soldiers started attacking women, and so the army asked to set up brothels. Keep in mind in the previous post, the woman detained
was the former prostitutes at Nanjing sold by her parents through the Korean agent.

And it is a cruel fact that there is a high rate of rapes without brothels at the place where military is.
See Japanese comfort women during the occupation

Frankly speaking

TOKYO (Reuters) - Blond, blue-eyed Westerners probably can't be as successful at Middle East diplomacy as Japanese with their "yellow faces," Japanese Foreign Minister Taro Aso was quoted by media as saying in a weekend speechMarvh 22

If I were a JPM, I would fire Aso, Kyuma Yanagisawa.
And I agree with Foreign dispatches on the assessment of Abe.

NYT's Onishi does it again and,,,,,,,

The NYT Does Korea Again! and the bloggerScribblings of the Metropolitician seems to be quite happy to see it.
In a sense, I agree, but in another sense, I have a worry.
In Japan it was Korean Wave that have brought about and spread anti-Korean wave.
Until people came to be informed of Korea, Korea was just one of the countries, the country that produce the delicious Kimchi, and they didnt know Korea was such anti-Japan-ist.
Now it might be the US citizens who will go through the phase some Japanese has experienced.

Morons comment with sheriff watching it.

Dog meat video has drawn more than 600 comments between morons in Korea and Japan.

Japan probe put it;

At the time of this posting, the video had over 645 comments, most of it vicious and ugly insult-slinging between Japanese and Korean netizens. . The YouTube commenting war between morons in Korea and Japan rages on….

It seems Maromot has drawn also moron's comment, but it is supposed to be moderated by the comment section sheriff


Dude should work on a special where Japanese elementary school kids flock to porn theaters. And, he might also want to show how easily cartoon porn and real porn is accessible everywhere.

Maybe tag a middle aged Japanese man meeting up with a young high school girl. Isn’t that a crime in America. Yup, it is. Yes, I know, it happens in the ROK, too. Happy ?k

Posted March 23, 2007 at 10:11 pm | Permalink

The Japanese are at their happiest when they find something to point a finger at Koreans. They’re cruel smiling little animals.
Posted March 23, 2007 at 10:17 pm | Permalink

The Japanese are at their happiest when they find something to point a finger at Koreans. They’re cruel smiling little animals.

They are the Nazis of Asia. Come with me to a cage in Kobe where beef are stuck to fatten.

Veal endures a similar fate in America, so what?
What fool ever postulated that a hog had a future?

Let's see how the sheriff will respond.

BTW I noticed the comment
jodi......Having said all this, when will the IP ban on my home computer be lifted, Marmot? I think it was unfairly enforced against me. Either that or a troll had my IP in the past thus resulting in the blacklist.

The commenter is very sensitive ,reasonable and highly intelligent blogger whose ability of writing is superb.

Let's see how it will come out.

Posted April 1, 2007 at 8:55 pm | Permalink

Yes, and God’s gift to the Japanese was their buckteeth to fillet fish into delicious sashimi. No other teeth are as good for filleting fish. Also, to the Jews, He gave them extra-large noses so they can tell when their numerous candles start a fire.

For the love of sweet Baby Jesus, I hope this is just a put-on26

Thursday, March 22, 2007

Make us official prositututes, demand Korean prostitutes

Here is a summary of the

A prositute complained that due to the law prohibiting the prostituion, the prositutes had to go abroad, but woman owed a great amount of debt to get the illegal passport and until paying all the debt back, women couldn't return to home country.Besides,this law make the population of VD worse. So ....

And the women engaging in sex trade in Korea have once demonstrated in front of the diet
protesting this law.
chosunilbo/ 2004/10/07

via 木村幽閉記


"우리 그냥 일하게 해주세요. 네?"
집창촌 성매매 여성들 공창제 촉구하고 나서

서울 용산 집창촌 집결지.

“우리 그냥 일하게 해주세요. 네?”

집창촌 성매매 종사자들이 성매매 특별법을 폐지하고 공창제를 실시할 것을 공개적으로 요구하고 나섰다. 집창촌 성매매 여성들 모임인 ‘한터여성종사자연맹’은 20일 오전 서울 프레스센터에서 기자회견을 갖고 성노동자들이 배제된 채 진행되고 있는 도심지역 재개발 법안을 철회하고 성매매 특별법을 폐지할 것을 요구했다.

이들은 성매매 특별법 시행 이후 집창촌 업소와 종사자는 40%가량 감소한 대신 대딸방, 전화방, 인터넷을 이용한 애인대행 등 음성적 성매매 시장은 오히려 커져 ‘풍선효과’만을 가져왔다고 주장했다. 특히 이들은 여성가족부와 페미니즘 단체들이 음성적 성매매 시장을 키운 ‘1등 공신’이라고 비꼬았다.

한터에 따르면 수많은 성매매 여성들이 해외 원정 성매매에 나서고 있다. 밀입국을 위해 여권 위조 비자를 취득하고 이 과정에서 수천만원의 빚을 지게 되며, 선급금으로 인해 여권을 압수당해 빚을 탕감할 때까지 귀국할 수 없는 악순환을 거듭하고 있다.

성매매 여성들은 성매매 특별법이 성병 등 질병관리에 취약한 구조를 양산하고 있다고 강조했다. 음성적 성매매로 인해 성매매 종사자뿐만 아니라 구매자들의 건강까지 위협하고 있다는 것이다.

최근 국회에서 추진되고 있는 집창촌 재개발에 대해서도 이들은 받아들일 수 없다고 밝혔다. 집창촌은 자신들의 삶의 터전이고 미래를 준비하는 소중한 일터라고 규정한 이들은 집창촌이 없어져도 인터넷과 전화를 이용한 성매매가 없어지지 않을 것이고 재개발 이익금을 성매매 종사자들에게 지원하겠다는 법은 믿을 수 없다는 것이다.

기자회견에 참여한 A씨는 “성매매 특별법 시행 후 우리의 소득은 3분1로 줄었다. 문제는 손님들 연령층도 줄었다는 것을 주목해야 한다. 나이 든 사람들은 음성적 성매매 업소로 가기 때문에 성 구매자들의 연령층이 낮아진 것”이라며 “이는 특별법이 성매매 근절에는 전혀 도움이 되지 않는다는 것을 방증하는 것이다. 성매매 금지가 근본 해결책이 될 수 없고 우리의 생존권이 걸려 있기 때문에 여성부를 상대로 끝까지 투쟁할 것”이라고 밝혔다.

� 장원주 기자
2007.03.20 (화) 16:45