Sunday, April 08, 2007

Comfort women at Sin Cities for GIs during Vietnam War.

Against our willpage 92-97
And so we come to the Americans - where first we must look at institutionalized prostitution, for as the American presence in Vietnam multiplied, the unspoken military theory of women's bodies as not only a reward of war but as a necessary provision like soda pop and ice cream,to keep our boys healthy and happy, turned into routine practice. .And if
monetary access to women's bodies did not promote an ideology of rape in
Vietnam, neither did it thwart it.
.....
By the time the Americans had fully replaced the French in Indochina
the war had sufficiently disrupted South Vietnamese society to a point where
it was no longer necessary to import foreign women for the purpose of military
prostitution. I do not mean to imply that prostitution was unknown in Vietnam
before the long war. As Peter Arnett told me, "Prostitution was a time-honored
tradition. Certain heads of families would not think twice before routinely
selling their daughters if they needed the money."
But as the long war
progressed, prostitution increasingly became the only viable economic solution
for thousands of South Vietnamese women. By 1966 the problem had reached such
proportions that a Committee for the Defense of the Vietnamese Woman's Human
Dignity and Rights was organized in Saigon by several hundred women educators,
writers and social workers, according to an AP dispatch. The wire service
reported that bitter words" were expressed at the first meeting. "The
miserable conditions of war have forced our people to sell everything - their
wives, children, relatives and friends - for the American dollar," a woman
educator was quoted.
The Committee for the Defense of the Vietnamese Woman,
overwhelmed by the reality of the Vietnam war, was never heard from again.
The American military got into the prostitution business by degrees,
an escalation process linked to the escalation of the war. Underlying the
escalation was the assumption that men at war required the sexual use of women's
bodies. Reporter Arnett saw the gradual acceptance of U.S. military-controlled and -regulated brothels as a natural outgrowth of what he called "the McNamara theory": "In 1965 the main idea was to keep the troops contented and satisfied.Ice cream, movies, swimming pools, pizza, hot dogs, laundry service and hootch maids. The hootch maid were brought in as maids, not as prostitutes. Sex witha hootch maid was a private arrangement, a relationship of convenience. A lotof hootch maids did become prostitutes, however, but in the early days if they were discovered at it, they were fired."
The hootch maids were the first step toward accommodation; bar girls
and massage parlors soon followed. According to Arnett, the rear-area troops
caused the most "problems": "There was a lot of discontent and boredom. The
men were aware that they were soldiers who weren't fighting, who weren't
getting any medals. They might drive into town to the illegal brothels, but
for reasons of VD and security the brothels were off limits."
(Massage
parlors, that vague gray area of sexual action from Saigon to New York City,
were always considered legal.)

In 1965 the Marine Corps base at Danang began experimenting with
organized battalion trips to town on a once-a-month basis, but according to
Arnett it was a disaster: "The men would hit town like animals, they couldn't
cope, it was pure chaos." After this early experience the Marine command
decided to confine their men to the base camp, but the inviolate law of supply
and demand went into operation. A shantytown of brothels, massage parlors and
dope dealers, known as Dogpatch, soon ringed the base. "The marines would bust
through the wire at night - the Marine command could live with that," the
reporter told me.

It was Arnett's opinion (not shared by me) that the U.S. Army was
"more enlightened" than the Marine Corps when it came to sexual accommodation.
By 1966 the 1st Cavalry Division at An Khe, in the Central Highlands, the 1st
Infantry Division at Lai Khe, twenty-five miles north of Saigon, and the 4th
Infantry Division at Pleiku had established official military brothels within
the perimeter of their base camps.

The Lai Khe "recreation area" belonging to the base camp of the 3rd
Brigade, 1st Infantry Division was a one-acre compound surrounded by barbed
wire with American MP's standing guard at the gate. It was opened only during
daylight hours for security reasons. Inside the compound there were shops that
sold hot dogs, hamburgers and souvenirs, but the main attraction was two
concrete barracks, each about one hundred feet long - the military whorehouses
that serviced the four-thousand-man brigade. Each building was outfitted with
two bars, a bandstand, and sixty curtained cubicles in which the Vietnamese
women lived and worked.
............
Refugees who had lost their homes and families during the war and
veterans of the earlier Saigon bar trade formed the stock of the brothel. They were recruited by the province chief, who took his payoff, and were channeled into town by the mayor of Lai Khe, who also got his cut. The American military, which kept its hands partially clean by leaving the procurement and price
arrangement to Vietnamese civilians, controlled and regulated the health and
security features of the trade. "The girls were checked and swabbed every week
for VD by Army medics," my informed source told me approvingly.
.....
Military brothels on Army base camps ("Sin Cities", "Disney-lands" or "boom-boom parlors") were built by decision of a division commander, a two-star general, and were under the direct operational control of a brigade commander with the rank of colonel. Clearly, Army brothels in Vietnam existed
by the grace of Army Chief of Staff William C. Westmoreland, the United States
Embassy in Saigon, and the Pentagon.


Venereal disease, mostly gonorrhea, was a major preoccupation of the
military in Vietnam. One official brothel outside Saigon had a sign on the
wall of the bar that read "GIRLS WITH TAGS ARE CLEAN."
..............


link魚拓

What is the difference between comfort station and "sin cities"?

Will the The US congress set up the fund and apologize?

See also American Military-Base Prostitution
Jennifer Latstetter
魚拓
A. The end of WWII (1945) to the eve of Korean War – Rampant and indiscriminate crimes against women1. Impacts on Women and Children by the US Military Bases in the Community魚拓
Women and the U.S. Military in East Asia魚拓
Filipinas in Prostitution around U.S. Military Bases in Korea: A Recurring Nightmare
Author(s): Jean Enriquez



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Three Rapes: The Status of Forces Agreement and Okinawa
by Chalmers Johnson



In case of Germany


Sexual enslavement by Nazi Germany in World War II(wiki)

 戦後、こうした強制的、あるいは、強制的な雰囲気での売春は問題にされてきませんでしたが、ご承知ように日本では、慰安婦問題として大きく取り上げられました。

01/15/2007
NAZI SEX SLAVES
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New Exhibition Documents Forced Prostitution in Concentration Camps
Hardly any of the women, who suffered severe physical and mental damage as a result of their experiences, applied after 1945 for compensation for their suffering because they felt talking about their experiences was too degrading, Eschebach said. "Sex slavery was not identified as such in the judicial cases dealing with the SS crimes," she added.


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